International Accounting

Abstracting and Indexing

Referativny Zhurnal VINITI RAS
Google Scholar

Online available



Cyberleninka (24 month OA embargo)

The evolution of accounting and reporting in the public sector of economy

Vol. 22, Iss. 9, SEPTEMBER 2019

Received: 30 July 2019

Received in revised form: 12 August 2019

Accepted: 30 August 2019

Available online: 16 September 2019


JEL Classification: М41

Pages: 1067–1084

Kulikova L.I. Kazan Federal University (KFU), Kazan, Republic of Tatarstan, Russian Federation

Yakhin I.I. Kazan Federal University (KFU), Kazan, Republic of Tatarstan, Russian Federation

ORCID id: not available

Subject The article analyzes how the practice of accounting and reporting historically evolved in the public sector of economy.
Objectives The research focuses on various accounting schools and national accounting schools specifically and determines periods when accounting and reporting practices originated in the public sector, indicating respective timelines and milestones.
Methods The methodological framework includes proceedings of renowned scholars in accounting who worked in the late 19th through early 20th cc. and some contemporary authors. The reliability of findings is ensured with such methods as observation, comparison, generalization and interpretation.
Results We determine when accounting and reporting practices emerged in the public sector. The first period was proved to start with exchange practices, seeing the first preparation of accounting documents and annual reports on public income and expenditures. During the second period, internal accounting originated from proceedings of the German accounting school. The third period was opened with the use of logismography devised by the Italian school of accounting scholars. During the fourth period, principles of accounting and reporting in public companies were developed and theorized through accounting rules and techniques which were applied by the Moscow City Council.
Conclusions and Relevance We conclude that the economic substance and content of accounting and reporting practices in the public sector transformed as accounting sciences evolved. The research proves it is reasonable to refer to the previous and earlier proceedings when outlining modern accounting principles in the public sector of economy.

Keywords: accounting, reporting, public sector, evolution


  1. L'vova D.A. Istoki teorii bukhgalterskogo ucheta obshchestvennogo sektora ekonomiki [Origins of the accounting theory for the public sector of economy]. St. Petersburg, Saint-Petersburg State University Publ., 2014, 160 p.
  2. Arnol'd K.I. O sisteme gosudarstvennogo schetovodstva [To the system of national bookkeeping]. Saint Petersburg, Medical Department of the Ministry of the Interior Publ., 1823, 240 p.
  3. Evzlin Z. Byudzhetnyi kontrol' i sistema gosudarstvennoi otchetnosti pri konstitutsionnom obraze pravleniya [Fiscal control and public reporting system under the regime of constitutional governance]. St. Petersburg, Tipografiya V.Ya. Mil'shteina Publ., 1913, 164 p.
  4. Galagan A.M. Obshchestvennoe schetovedenie [Public bookkeeping]. Moscow, Vysshaya Shkola Publ., 1915, 132 p.
  5. Roudanovsky A.P. Printsipy obshchestvennogo schetovedeniya [Principles of public bookkeeping]. Moscow, Moscow Institute of Commerce Publ., 1913, 422 p.
  6. Galagan A.M. Osnovnye momenty v razvitii schetnoi idei [Key aspects of the accounting theory development]. Moscow, Moscow Institute of Commerce Publ., 1914, 32 p.
  7. Kulikova L.I. [The historical aspect of origin and development of the science of accounting system]. Vestnik Adygeiskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Seriya 5: Ekonomika = Bulletin of Adyghe State University. Series 5: Economics, 2015, no. 3, pp. 97–105. URL: Link (In Russ.)
  8. Galagan A.M. Schetovodstvo v ego istoricheskom razvitii [Accounting in its historical evolution]. Leningrad, Gosizdat Publ., 1927, 166 p.
  9. Pomazkov N.S. Schetnye teorii: printsip dvoistvennosti i metod dvoinoi zapisi [Accounting theories: The principle of dualism and double entry method]. Leningrad, Ekonomicheskoe obrazovanie Publ., 1929, 265 p.
  10. Galagan A.M. Osnovy obshchego schetovedeniya [Principles of general accounting]. Moscow, Izdatel'stvo Narkomtorga SSSR i RSFSR Publ., 1928, 436 p.
  11. Hügli F. Dvoinaya kameral'naya bukhgalteriya [Die konstante Buchhaltung]. Petrograd, Kommercheskaya literatura Publ., 1916, 132 p.
  12. Sokolov Ya.V. Osnovy teorii bukhgalterskogo ucheta [Principles of the accounting theory]. Moscow, Finansy i Statistika Publ., 2000, 496 p.
  13. Roudanovsky A.P. Obshchaya teoriya ucheta i otsenka Moskovskogo gorodskogo schetovodstva s tochki zreniya schetnoi teorii i schetnoi praktiki v ikh sovremennom razvitii [The general theory of accounting and view of the Moscow City bookkeeping in terms of the accounting theory and bookkeeping at their current phase]. Moscow, Gorodskaya tipografiya Publ., 1912, 385 p.
  14. L'vova D.A. [Chief accountant of the Moscow City Council A.P. Roudanovsky and his balance sheet model]. Mezhdunarodnyi bukhgalterskii uchet = International Accounting, 2016, no. 20, pp. 43–60. URL: Link (In Russ.)
  15. RoudanovskyA.P. [The preparation of the balance sheet. The report delivered at the public meeting of the Society for Creating and Disseminating the Accounting Knowledge of March 24, 1913]. Byulleten' Organa Obshchestva razrabotki i rasprostraneniya schetovodnykh znanii = Bulletin of the Office of the Society for Creating and Disseminating the Accounting Knowledge, 1913, no. 3, pp. 283–307. (In Russ.)
  16. Sizemskii A.N. Moskovskoe gorodskoe schetovodstvo. V kn.: Sovremennoe khozyaistvo goroda Moskvy [Moscow City bookkeeping. In: Modern economy of Moscow]. Moscow, Moscow City Council Publ., 1913, pp. 624–629.

View all articles of issue


ISSN 2311-9381 (Online)
ISSN 2073-5081 (Print)

Journal current issue

Vol. 23, Iss. 5
May 2020