Subject. The article focuses on the innovative import substitution as a requirement for the socio-economic security of the Russian Federation. Objectives. We address theoretical and methodological issues of the innovation-driven import substitution in order to update, command and use brand-new technologies for purposes of the production and economy. Methods. The study is based on statistical and economic-mathematical methods and methods of comparative analysis. We also apply our own techniques for evaluating the innovative and technological potential of regions. Results. We analyzed key approaches to understanding the concept of import substitution. The article provides our own interpretation of socio-economic security threats as issues caused due to the underdeveloped domestic production of food and technologies, which are strategic for the appropriate technological independence. We analyzed the foreign practice of import substitution and discovered the specifics, issues and weaknesses of the import substitution policy that Russia currently promotes. The article unveils the substance and specifics of innovation within the import substitution course as a sub-system of public administration of local socio-economic processes. Illustrating the Ural Federal District, we determined capabilities of old industrial regions as promising points of innovative import substitution. Conclusions and Relevance. Innovative import substitution is extremely important as a requirement for the socio-economic security of the Russian Federation so as to technologically advance the Russian economy and make it more competitive and sustainable. The article formulates priorities and key tasks of the innovative import substitution strategy in the Russian Federation. The article is intended for experts in innovation processes at the regional and federal levels.
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