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The military-industrial complex restructuring

Sobolev L.B. Moscow Aviation Institute, Moscow, Russian Federation ( sobolevLB@yandex.ru )

Journal: Finance and Credit, #47, 2016

Subject The article considers enhancement of economic efficiency of Russian arms manufacturers through using the business models of global leaders and their vying strategies.
Objectives The aim of the study is to compare restructuring methods of leading Western and Russian companies engaged in development and manufacture of weapons and military equipment.
Methods The study rests on a comparative analysis of Western and Russian leading arms manufacturers and their restructuring methods under instability of the countries' military budgets. The analysis is based on the annual rating data of world arms manufacturers, presented by the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), and publications in public sources.
Results The analysis shows that Russian companies operating in the military-industrial complex make only first steps towards creation of a globally competitive organization. Subsequent steps should be a segmentation of companies based on product and/or region (for cost saving), and reduction of their dependency on Defense Procurement through creation of robust civil segments (electronics, oil and gas and power equipment, etc.).
Conclusions and Relevance Under fierce competition in the global weapons and military equipment market, it is possible to create alternative business structures of corporations operating in the Russian military-industrial complex (using the experience of Joint-Stock Financial Corporation Sistema), enhance cooperation with companies of fuel and energy complex, develop internal competition in the country.


Analysis of fundamental changes in the realization of public-private partnership projects under the influence of the global financial crisis

Kabashkin V. a professor of MSLU, d.e.s ( kabashkin_va@veb.ru )

Sobolev I. student of MSLU ( ISoboleff@yandex.ru )

Journal: Regional Economics: Theory and Practice, #3, 2011

This article is devoted to the main provisions of the public-private partnership (PPP) projects realization. The grouping of fundamental changes in the realization of public-private partnership projects under the influence of the global financial crisis (2008) is provided. The PPP development prospects in the Russian regions are developed.


Innovative strategy of transformation of hi-tech complexes

Sobolev L.B. PhD in Economics, Professor, Department “Economics of Innovation and Project Management”, the Moscow Aviation Institute (National Research University) ( srd5051@mai.ru )

Yakovlev E.N. Doctor of Economics, Professor, Director “Expert and analytical Center" ( 8tat@mail.ru )

Journal: National Interests: Priorities and Security, #6, 2013

Transformation of high-tech facilities in the network of the company is one of the most promising and innovative forms of organization of big business. A similar form is being implemented in corporations Airbus, Siemens, Nokia, Sony. Enterprise Network is a network of partners (enterprises, research institutes, universities, and individuals), jointly engaging in the development, manufacture and marketing of certain products, while maintaining the independence to work with other partners.


Domestic aircraft industry needs the reformation

Sobolev L.B. Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, the Department of Economy of Innovations and Management of Projects, the Moscow Aviation Institute - the National Research University ( sobolevLB@yandex.ru )

Davydov A.D. PhD in Economics, Chief of the Problematic Research Laboratory, the Moscow Aviation Institute - the National Research University ( srd5051@mai.ru )

Journal: Economic Analysis: Theory and Practice, #28, 2013

The united aircraft construction corporation created in 2006; to the present time solved only one of stated problems - concentration of the aviation active memberships within the framework of government monopoly. Now it is necessary to solve more complex problem - to make domestic aviation branch competitive in the world aviation markets. In the article one of the methods of solution of this task is proposed.


Enhancing the efficiency of State corporations of military-industrial complex

Sobolev L.B. Moscow Aviation Institute - National Research University, Moscow, Russian Federation ( sobolevLB@yandex.ru )

Kuprin I.L. Moscow Aviation Institute - National Research University, Moscow, Russian Federation ( tenoz@mail.ru )

Journal: National Interests: Priorities and Security, #35, 2014

The article describes the comparative analysis of economic indicators of the leading corporations in the missile area of the United States and Russia on the basis of the information available in the public domain. For a comparison, the authors selected the largest American company in this area: Raytheon from the United States and the European company MBDA. From the Russian side, they singled out Open Joint Stock Companies "Almaz-Antei" and "Corporation "Tactical Missiles Corporation". The authors of the study performed the main task to find the ways to enhance the economic efficiency of the State enterprises of the military-industrial complex of the Russian Federation. The methodology and tools of the research are based on collating and comparative evaluation of the activities of the leading corporations of Russia and NATO countries involved in the development and production of missile technology. These corporations provide their countries' military capabilities and compete with each other on the international arms market. The analysis revealed that the Russian missile corporation's labor productivity (output per worker) is significantly inferior to the same indicator of the Western corporations that forbids paying workers a decent salary and hampers measures to ensure prestige of work in this field. The authors draw the conclusion that in conditions of a rigid competition in the area of the missile weaponry, the Russian corporations need to significantly reduce internal and transaction costs (including measures to reduce the number of employees of all levels and enhance their skills), as well as they have to use extensive the diversification of businesses in the high-tech field. The experience, which is gained by the foreign missile production and aerospace firms in the area of diversification, confirms that the diversification of corporations of the military-industrial complex should be based on the use of their achievements in the research and development, unique equipment, highly qualified staff, which can ensure achieving of the sustainable positions in new markets. The authors point out that the level of the applied technologies and knowledge-intensive products are essential. The companies, which possess the high research intensity level of products, find themselves in more confident state while they apply the diversification. They have greater prospects for the development of dual-use technologies. Thus, those companies that use the diversification of production appropriately identify the core competencies of their corporation, and explore the possibility to apply them in the development of high-tech products.


Diversification of Aerospace corporations

Sobolev L.B. Moscow Aviation Institute (State University of Aerospace Technology), Moscow, Russian Federation ( sobolevLB@yandex.ru )

Kuprin I.L. Moscow Aviation Institute (State University of Aerospace Technology), Moscow, Russian Federation ( tenoz@mail.ru )

Journal: Economic Analysis: Theory and Practice, #9, 2015

Importance The article includes a comparative analysis of diversification processes in aerospace corporations of the EU and Russia. It shows that EU corporations, as a rule, specialize in one of civil aircraft engineering sectors (the core business), have the combat air force division and a hi-tech business. This structure provides for economic stability of such corporations in the global highly competitive aviation market, growth of labor productivity and stock value. Furthermore, the governments of European States, despite the availability of serious American competitors, support competition, first of all, in the combat air force sector, ensuring the economy of budget resources of their countries. We propose to make use of this experience for structural reforms of the United Aircraft Corporation (UAC).
     Objectives The objective of the study is to increase the economic efficiency of the UAC.
     Methods We performed a comparative analysis of leading corporations' activity of the EU and Russia that are engaged in development and manufacture of aviation equipment.
     Results The analysis demonstrated that Western aerospace corporations, owing to competition and well-considered diversification provide a stable growth of economic indicators (total revenue, shareholder value, product modernization).
     Conclusions and Relevance We conclude that in conditions of tough competition in the global aircraft engineering market, it is necessary to refuse monopolization of Russian aircraft engineering, maintain internal competition, apply more serious approaches to diversification of aviation holdings, and to increase the transparency of the aviation business. Comparing the UАC with European aerospace corporations, it becomes obvious that the UАC has fulfilled its function as a collector of aviation assets, and, in its current role of the Russian monopolist, can hardly become competitive in the global aviation markets in the coming decade. We suggest creating two or three competing companies instead of the monopolist UАC. The core business of these companies should include manufacture of civil aircraft that are in demand in the domestic market, the combat air force division, and one highly profitable business, if possible.


Diversification of Aerospace corporations

Sobolev L.B. Moscow Aviation Institute (State University of Aerospace Technology), Moscow, Russian Federation ( sobolevLB@yandex.ru )

Kuprin I.L. Moscow Aviation Institute (State University of Aerospace Technology), Moscow, Russian Federation ( tenoz@mail.ru )

Journal: Digest Finance, #2, 2015

Importance The article includes a comparative analysis of diversification processes in aerospace corporations of the EU and Russia. It shows that EU corporations, as a rule, specialize in one of civil aircraft engineering sectors (the core business), have the combat air force division and a hi-tech business. This structure provides for economic stability of such corporations in the global highly competitive aviation market, growth of labor productivity and stock value. Furthermore, the governments of European States, despite the availability of serious American competitors, support competition, first of all, in the combat air force sector, ensuring the economy of budget resources of their countries. We propose to make use of this experience for structural reforms of the United Aircraft Corporation (UAC).
     Objectives The objective of the study is to increase the economic efficiency of the UAC.
     Methods We performed a comparative analysis of leading corporations' activity of the EU and Russia that are engaged in development and manufacture of aviation equipment.
     Results The analysis demonstrated that Western aerospace corporations, owing to competition and well-considered diversification provide a stable growth of economic indicators (total revenue, shareholder value, product modernization).
     Conclusions and Relevance We conclude that in conditions of tough competition in the global aircraft engineering market, it is necessary to refuse monopolization of Russian aircraft engineering, maintain internal competition, apply more serious approaches to diversification of aviation holdings, and to increase the transparency of the aviation business. Comparing the UАC with European aerospace corporations, it becomes obvious that the UАC has fulfilled its function as a collector of aviation assets, and, in its current role of the Russian monopolist, can hardly become competitive in the global aviation markets in the coming decade. We suggest creating two or three competing companies instead of the monopolist UАC. The core business of these companies should include manufacture of civil aircraft that are in demand in the domestic market, the combat air force division, and one highly profitable business, if possible.


Horizontal integration or conglomeration?

Sobolev L.B. Moscow Aviation Institute (National Research University), Moscow, Russian Federation ( sobolevLB@yandex.ru )

Journal: Economic Analysis: Theory and Practice, #24, 2015

Importance The article shows that many world aerospace corporations use conglomerate mergers and acquisitions (M&A) to increase their financial stability. In this case, civil divisions of the corporations may be both high and low technological, but they should be highly profitable. The objects of the research are the largest aerospace companies of the USA, Japan and the Peoples Republic of China. All these companies undergo continuous restructuring. Through the M&A procedure, they create and abolish certain divisions to maintain competitiveness in the global markets. In Russia this experience is only at the stage of gaining momentum, but already created conglomerate companies exhibit higher growth in comparison with horizontally integrated companies.
     Objectives The aim of the study is to determine economic efficiency of Russian aerospace corporations' operations.
     Methods I performed the comparative analysis of the activity of the aerospace industry world leaders. It shows that these corporations actively use conglomerate mergers to increase their stability and improve economic parameters.
     Results The analysis demonstrates that in Russian conditions, it is necessary to more widely involve highly profitable businesses (petrochemistry, trade, finance, construction) in conglomeratic aerospace corporations.
     Conclusions and Relevance In conditions of the Russian aerospace complex restructuring, it is necessary to more widely involve highly profitable civil businesses in these corporations. This will allow increasing the corporations' contribution to R&D and to weaken pressure on the State budget. It is particularly relevant in modern conditions of budget revenue decrease from low oil prices and international sanctions. The national horizontally integrated corporations, having one or two new products and the limited sales market, can further increase their income at the expense of import substitution of equipment for oil-and-gas and power industries or software manufacturing.


Wind power and the diversification of corporations in the military-industrial complex

Sobolev L.B. Moscow Aviation Institute, Moscow, Russian Federation ( sobolevLB@yandex.ru )

Journal: National Interests: Priorities and Security, #36, 2015

Importance The article discusses one of national power security issues within a medium and long period. Russia dramatically lags in wind power engineering and generation. Developing alternative energy sources is an issue of the national power security for Russia. Conventional sources of energy will be depleting within the coming decades. Even now they are actively explored in the Arctic regions, where the cost of resources will significantly appreciate, thus necessitating the polar tariffs. Wind power generation industry will be a brand new industry for Russia.
     Objectives The research attracts attention of top executives in the military-industrial complex of Russia to establishing the wind power industry as part of diversifying activities of corporations they lead.
     Methods I analyzed operations of companies manufacturing wind power generating installations and examined three possible scenarios for developing the wind power industry in Russia, i.e. endorsing leading foreign manufacturers of wind power generating installations, setting up joint wind power engineering ventures, creating absolutely domestic production using insufficiently utilized capacities of the aviation industry.
     Results The research illustrates the economic reasonableness and efficiency of using wind power installations and hybrid wind and diesel power installations in many remote areas of the Russian Federation.
     Conclusions and Relevance I conclude that if the development of alternative energy sources is further neglected, it will pose a threat to Russia's security. So, I suggest developing wind power generation in addition to the oil and gas industry and involve the existing corporations of the military-industrial complex for this purpose.


Conglomeration as a method for increasing the efficiency of the military-industrial sector

Sobolev L.B. Moscow Aviation Institute – National Research University, Moscow, Russian Federation ( sobolevLB@yandex.ru )

Journal: National Interests: Priorities and Security, #47, 2015

Importance Defensive and resource conglomerates, robust and rather autonomous hi-tech civilian subdivisions can become one of the methods for restructuring the Russian economy.
     Objectives The research evaluates whether it is possible to enhance the economic efficiency of the Russian aerospace corporations as one of the leading segments in the military-industrial sector.
     Methods I performed a comparative analysis of activities of the global aerospace leaders.
     Results Aggregation of assets should be regarded as the first step of restructuring the military-industrial complex. As the analysis and the Russian economic conditions show, it is necessary to involve highly profitable businesses (oil and gas assets, banks, trading and construction companies) into conglomerate aerospace corporations.
     Conclusions and Relevance Restructuring the aerospace segment of Russia, it is reasonable to involve highly profitable civilian businesses in those corporations, thus increasing the input of the corporations in R&D and alleviate the budgetary burden. It is especially relevant when budgetary revenues from sale of carbon hydroxides fall and international sanctions are imposed. Defensive and resource conglomerates can raise their revenue by substituting imported equipment for oil&gas and power industries, creating innovative transport or IT-products.


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