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Investment tax incentives as tools for the development of land areas

Vyakina I.V. Tver State Technical University (TvSTU), Tver, Russian Federation ( vyakina@yahoo.com )

Plotitsyna L.A. Financial University under Government of Russian Federation, Moscow, Russian Federation ( ploticina@bk.ru )

Skvortsova G.G. Tver State Technical University (TvSTU), Tver, Russian Federation ( gala-skvortsova@yandex.ru )

Journal: Regional Economics: Theory and Practice, #3, 2019

Subject This article discusses the use of special tax regimes to stimulate investment activity at the regional level.
Objectives The article aims to consider the effectiveness of the application of investment tax incentives as tools for the development of regions.
Methods For the study, we used the methods of systems, logical, and comparative analyses, and mathematical statistics.
Conclusions To implement investment projects in the region, tax incentives are not the most significant factor in choosing by a potential investor at the moment. The application of tax exemptions is related to the non-receipt of budget revenues. The phasing out of individual federal tax exemptions and the transfer of authority to establish them at the regional (local) level should ensure a balanced regional budget, but at the same time may increase the differentiation in the regional development. However, the optimization of the existing investment tax incentives in the regions seems necessary.


Renovation of fixed capital in the real sector: The potential of import substitution and economic security

Vyakina I.V. Tver State Technical University, Tver, Russian Federation ( vyakina@yahoo.com )

Journal: Economic Analysis: Theory and Practice, #5, 2017

Importance One of the key threats to economic security of Russia from the strategic perspective is a technological lag, which depends on the scale of investment in fixed assets and the industrial and technological potential. Solving this problem objectively requires significant changes in the nature of renovation the technical and technological base.
Objectives The article aims at researching the processes of fixed capital reproduction in the real sector in the context of regional economic complexes and systematization of scientific knowledge on fixed asset renovation to ensure economic independence and security under import phase-out.
Methods I apply traditional methods of scientific analysis, techniques of economic and mathematical statistics, technical-economic and logical analysis, graphic simulation, systematization and ranking as a methodological basis of the study.
Results The article overviews the problem of overcoming the technological backwardness through updating the production facilities in the national science and business practices. It describes the process of production asset renewal by economic activities, assesses the opportunities for its implementation under import substitution, analyzes the intensity of property, plant and equipment renovation from regional perspective and the role of subjects of the Russian Federation in import substitution.
Conclusions The findings testify to the need for a clear justification of mechanisms for fixed capital renovation and continuation of further research in this field.


Spatial differentiation of regions' investment appeal in the context of economic security

Vyakina I.V. Tver State Technical University, Tver, Russian Federation ( vyakina@yahoo.com )

Journal: Economic Analysis: Theory and Practice, #8, 2017

Importance The Russian Federation is characterized by significant differences in socio-economic conditions for investment activities in regions. For the purposes of economic security, it is crucial to consider the fact that regions with different levels of development have different economic interests and growth opportunities within a single economic space.
Objectives The purpose of the study is to examine reasons for spatial imbalances in development and investment attractiveness from the economic security perspective and their impact on the nature of regional investment processes under economic sanctions and Russia's foreign economic relations restructuring.
Methods The study relies on traditional methods of scientific analysis, economic and mathematical statistics, techno-economic and logical analysis, graphical and economic-mathematical modeling, etc.
Results The paper examines the importance of single economic and investment space to ensure national economic security, identifies reasons for qualitative differences in investment appeal of Russian regions, assesses investment concentration in constituent entities of the Russian Federation, analyzes spatial distribution of foreign investments prior to imposition of economic sanctions by Western countries and their outflow in the process of Russia's economic relations restructuring.
Conclusions It is possible to mitigate spatial heterogeneity of investment attractiveness of subjects of the Russian Federation through registration of enterprises based on the place of their actual activities, enhancement of interactions and economic relations within the economic space of the Russian Federation.


Business integration and quasi-integration as part of investing in economic security

Vyakina I.V. Tver State Technical University, Tver, Russian Federation ( vyakina@yahoo.com )

Journal: National Interests: Priorities and Security, #5, 2017

Importance National interests of Russia, economy of the country, regions and industries mean that the economy should be capable of generating the continuing investment process supporting the reproduction of national wealth and sustainable development and strategic competitiveness of the national economy.
Objectives The research examines the substance of business integration and quasi-integration as mechanisms for investing in economic security. I also identify how business integration influences the nature and mechanisms of cash flow management.
Methodology The research employs such conventional methods as analysis and synthesis, observation, induction and deduction, systems approach, graphical method.
Results I scrutinized such constructs as integration and quasi-integration and proposed my own classification of combined business structures by type of integration ties. Various integration forms were found to be significant for economic security investment.
Conclusions and Relevance Business structure components can have integration and quasi-integration nexus. The nature of integration ties directly influences the management of business structures, investment risk level and cash flow management mechanisms. Diversified integration generates higher effect in less advanced economies. This effect stems from intragroup maneuvering of financial resources, since it is necessary to establish business structures reducing transaction costs and adapting to the weakness of institutions, when capital markets and their institutional regulators are weak due to insufficient financial injections.


The definition of economic security at the micro-, meso- and macrolevels: Conceptual issues

Vyakina I.V. Tver State Technical University, Tver, Russian Federation ( vyakina@yahoo.com )

Journal: National Interests: Priorities and Security, #6, 2016

Importance The article discusses conceptual scientific approaches to defining the substance and structural components of economic security in terms of the development of socio-economic systems at the micro-, meso- and macrolevels.
Objectives The research systematizes scientific knowledge on economic security and substantiates my own views on the substance of economic security of the socio-economic system at various spatial levels.
Methods The methodological framework relies upon a combination of scientific methods of economic analysis, such as methods of induction and deduction, logic abstraction, causality, functionality, systems, methods of historical and comparative analysis, etc.
Results The article overviews the substance of target economic security indicators in scientific literature, systematizes scientific stances on the category in question. I point out key conceptual approaches to studying economic security in line with scholars' views and assertions, substantiates my own views, thus revealing the substance of the economic security concept in term of the development of socio-economic systems at the micro-, meso- and macrolevels.
Conclusions and Relevance Economic security is spatially measured depending on researches into economic systems and their level, since every actor of economic activities independently takes its business decisions on the use of resources, operations and development so to improve its competitive advantages in the respective economic area. Target assertions are similar since they refer to identical processes influencing the various levels of economic security.


Creation of the convenient and safe business environment as part of the interaction between businesses and controlling and supervisory authorities

Vyakina I.V. Tver State Technical University (TvSTU), Tver, Russian Federation ( vyakina@yahoo.com )

Journal: National Interests: Priorities and Security, #6, 2019

Subject Control and supervision on the part of the State remain one of the most acute aspects where interests of the State and business overlap. On the one hand, governmental control is being reformed and some legislative initiatives of the President and RF Government are being implemented. On the other hand, the business community perceives this as the tightened control and supervision.
Objectives The study evaluates the impact of control (oversight) over business operations and analyzes the interaction of business and the State as governmental control practices are being reformed in the Tver Oblast. I also outline my proposals for making the interaction of business and the State more effective so as to create the secure and convenient business environment.
Methods I systematize and analyze the outcome of surveys conducted in the Tver Oblast in 2017 and 2018 among three hundred of business leaders. The study is based on methods of scientific analysis, economic and mathematical statistics, feasibility and logic study, graphic, economic and mathematical modeling.
Results I revealed key issues arising from the interaction of business and controlling and supervisory authorities. The article sets out measures that may contribute to convenient and secure business conditions.
Conclusions and Relevance Business has little interest in organizational aspects of governmental authorities when undergoing controlling and supervisory checks. The business community advocates for measures streamlining such checks, i.e. simple and understandable instructions on control procedures, reduction in statutory reporting, less frequent amendments to the laws.


Tax mechanisms to regulate investing activities as a tool to strengthen the economic security of the State

Vyakina I.V. Tver State Technical University, Tver, Russian Federation ( vyakina@yahoo.com )

Skvortsova G.G. Tver State Technical University, Tver, Russian Federation ( rsorokina@fa.ru )

Journal: National Interests: Priorities and Security, #4, 2019

Subject Tax mechanisms to regulate investing activities are considered as an important tool for strengthening the economic security of the State. At the same time, the authorities apply tax incentives and benefits to attract domestic and foreign investments to key economic sectors.
Objectives The purpose of the work is to develop ways to streamline tax incentives for investments and boost the economic activity that contribute to strengthening the economic security of the State through the analysis of the best global practices for applying investment preferences, and evaluation of Russian experience in tax incentives for investing activities.
Methods We employ methods of systems, logical and comparative analysis of academic literature, the content analysis, methods of mathematical statistics and graphic simulation.
Results The global experience in using tax incentives as a tool to increase investment appeal of a territory and ensure economic security demonstrates efficiency subject to the availability of favorable business environment, administrative factors of investment climate, and sufficient quality of government. The paper formulates specific directions for optimizing the tax benefits that boost the investing activity of the business.
Conclusions Tax incentives remain a popular tool to attract investment both in Russia and abroad. However, their effectiveness in the Russian reality largely depends on administrative and legal factors of business climate and management quality.


Social and environmental aspects of economic security as part of the sustainable development concept

Vyakina I.V. Tver State Technical University (TvSTU), Tver, Russian Federation ( vyakina@yahoo.com )

Journal: National Interests: Priorities and Security, #12, 2018

Subject Traditional views of national security have been superseded with more vague and general understanding of the concept as part of the sustainable development concept. It particularly concerns economic and environmental security.
Objectives The research systematizes and theoretically generalizes the concepts of economic security and sustainable development, substantiates their mutual relation given resources are scarce. I examine social and environmental threats to sustainable development and economic security.
Methods The research is based on traditional methods of research, such as analysis and synthesis, observation, induction and deduction, systems approach, graphical method.
Results I pointed out key characteristics that are common to scientific approaches to economic security and sustainable development. The article indicates challenging issues from social and environmental perspectives, which threaten to sustainable and safe development. I unveil economic security threats which arise from the disparity in income, national health and effectiveness of medical treatment and preventive services to the Russian people.
Conclusions and Relevance Environmental and health care issues should be addressed in order to preserve appropriate conditions for life and health of generations to come. Profit-driven business operations and pursuit of economic goals are unacceptable for the ecology of the Earth and public health. Hence, the society has to ensure sustainable social and economic development and concurrently prevent the deterioration of the social and environmental situation. The motivational mechanism, which inter alia implies financial incentives, is a crucial tool to achieve the goals.


Institutional restrictions of investment processes as a threat to national interests

Vyakina I.V. Tver State Technical University, Tver, Russian Federation ( vyakina@yahoo.com )

Journal: National Interests: Priorities and Security, #6, 2017

Importance National economic interests of Russia require the national economic system to evolve, generate income, ensure the reproduction and renewal of the capital stock. To examine methods for unleashing the investment processes and reproduction of the capital stock, it is necessary to analyze the existing investment barriers and restrictions.
Objectives The research identifies institutional restrictions to investment processes and examines institutional barriers of the Russian Federation, their causes and possible solutions.
Methods To examine the investment processes in the Russian Federation, I apply conventional methods for a scientific analysis, economic and mathematical statistics, feasibility and logic studies, graphic modeling and mathematical modeling in economics.
Results The article analyzes the current situation in the investment sector while investment and technological ties weaken in the global economy and consumer growth falls. I identify the most significant institutional barriers that obstruct capital investment at the current phase of the Russian economic development. I provide my own system of the main formal and informal institutional restrictions in the Russian Federation.
Conclusions and Relevance According to the Russian and foreign experts, ownership rights and the freedom of investors' decision-making are insufficiently protected in Russia. This is a serious problem that can be resolved if the business and investment climate is improved through institutional changes, thus increasing the confidence level. Gaining the confidence takes time. In this respect, it requires forming the civil society and reformatting the country into the State that protects the private life, strictly controls financial and business operations of governmental enterprises.


Investment support to social and economic development in the context of market-oriented reforms of Russia's economy

Vyakina I.V. Tver State Technical University, Tver, Russian Federation ( vyakina@yahoo.com )

Journal: National Interests: Priorities and Security, #11, 2017

Importance Economic development implies the capacity of a socioeconomic system for a sustainable and expanded reproduction, which is associated with investment support and its efficiency. Renovation and expanded reproduction of fixed capital and social development depend on the scale and efficiency of investment.
Objectives The study aims at analyzing the specifics of economic development of Russia in the historical context based on investment criteria during the transition to regulated market, identifying the key drivers of economic growth at different stages during the market transformation of Russian economy, assessing the level of social development in relation to investment and financial factors.
Methods Methodological framework includes traditional methods of scientific analysis, economic and mathematical statistics, technical, economic and logical analysis, graphic simulation, mathematical modeling in economics, etc.
Results I systematize stages of Russian economy's market transformation during the reform; provide qualitative characteristic of economic development specifics at each stage, identify general links between the nature of investment process and the level of economic development, determine key factors of economic growth at every stage, and disclose their specifics.
Conclusions The current investment crisis in Russia is logical, as despite extensive discussion on exhausted potential of the export-and-resource-based development model, there are no significant changes in this area. Low social indicators, high country risk, steady distrust of potential investors in State institutions, absence of effective mechanism for protection of property rights and capital investment, as well as mechanisms for transformation of savings into investments are the main reasons underlying the crisis.


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