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Approaches to classification of non-tariff measures for foreign trade regulation

Volkov R.G. Center for Macroeconomic Analysis and Short-Term Forecasting, Moscow, Russian Federation ( rvolkov@forecast.ru )

Sabel'nikova E.M. Center for Macroeconomic Analysis and Short-Term Forecasting, Moscow, Russian Federation ( esabelnikova@forecast.ru )

Journal: Economic Analysis: Theory and Practice, #4, 2018

Importance The analysis of non-tariff measures for foreign trade regulation implies application of classifications developed over the last decades by international economic organizations and independent researchers. The article deals with the evolution of different approaches to non-tariff measures classification from the middle of the 20th century to the present day.
Objectives The study aims to review different approaches to non-tariff measures classification.
Methods We investigate approaches to non-tariff measures classification and perform their historical and qualitative analysis.
Results The analysis shows that researchers and international organizations have developed several classifications over recent 30 years. However, all of them either solved specific problems or became irrelevant due to expansion of non-tariff measures. This required joint efforts of the UN, WTO, UNCTAD and other organizations to develop a universal classification.
Conclusions At present, the UNCTAD classification developed in 2008 is considered to be the most comprehensive and widely used one. Though it covers approximately 180 non-tariff measures, the classification process remains unfinished.


New approaches to risk assessment of investments in industrial activity

Volkov I.V. Nizhny Novgorod State University of Engineering and Economics, Knyaginino, Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Russian Federation ( Volkov-iv@ngiei.ru )

Ryabova I.V. Nizhny Novgorod State University of Engineering and Economics, Knyaginino, Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Russian Federation ( ryabova-inna-2012@yandex.ru )

Journal: Finance and Credit, #37, 2015

Importance At present, the basis of dynamic development of a modern organization is continuous innovation within extended reproduction. Any innovative activity implies a high degree of risk of investment in innovation creating and commissioning. Therefore, innovative activity largely depends on the efficient investment policy that identifies both the areas of innovation development and methods of assessing their risk.
     Objectives The major goal of the study is to find new approaches to investment risk identification in production activities, and to determine investment yield based on the degree of risk, taking into account the prevailing conditions.
     Methods We propose a new mechanism for risk assessment based on the rating and scoring method, considering the multifactor impact on the result of investment activity.
     Results We have developed a diagram-matrix approach to identify the degree of risk of investment in production activity, and the risk-based methodology to calculate the yield.
     Conclusions We conclude that in the event of extended reproduction, when evaluating the return on investment in production, the offered mechanism enables to incorporate the risk level and the existing conditions.


An analysis of regional infrastructure to support technology entrepreneurship: Challenges and ways to overcome them

Akimova O.E. Volgograd State Technical University (VSTU), Volgograd, Russian Federation ( akimovann25@mail.ru )

Volkov S.K. Volgograd State Technical University (VSTU), Volgograd, Russian Federation ( ambiente2@rambler.ru )

Kabanov V.A. Volgograd State Technical University (VSTU), Volgograd, Russian Federation ( kabanov@vstu.ru )

Kuzlaeva I.M. Guarantee Fund of Volgograd Oblast, Volgograd, Russian Federation ( kmn07@mail.ru )

Journal: Regional Economics: Theory and Practice, #10, 2019

Subject This article examines the infrastructure of support for technology entrepreneurship at the regional level, considering the Volgograd Oblast as a case study.
Objectives The article aims to analyze the regional infrastructure to support technology entrepreneurship and develop practical recommendations for its improvement.
Methods For the study, we used a systems approach and the methods of analysis and synthesis, comparison, generalization, and involved observation.
Results The article reveals the low effectiveness of measures of State support for technology entrepreneurship in the regions. It also offers certain ways to address the problem.
Conclusions and Relevance To develop technology entrepreneurship in the region, it is necessary to restructure the system of institutional support, organize a tripartite cluster-type interaction between the business community, research organizations and public authorities. The results of the study can be used by the authorities responsible for the development of entrepreneurship and innovation, as well as the business community.


A strategy to provide economic growth financing in Russia

Slepov V.A. Plekhanov Russian University of Economics, Moscow, Russian Federation ( slepov.va@rea.ru )

Volkov I.I. Plekhanov Russian University of Economics, Moscow, Russian Federation ( winner.06@mail.ru )

Journal: Finance and Credit, #43, 2016

Subject The article considers mechanisms of financial sources formation to increase economic growth of Russia.
Objectives The aim is to formulate general provisions of a strategy to ensure Russia's GDP growth financing.
Methods The main methods of the research are formal and dialectical logic, deduction and induction, analysis and synthesis.
Results We identify basic mechanisms to create financial sources of economic growth, i.e. savings ratio, savings, investment in fixed assets. The analysis of their trends enabled to formulate basic provisions of a strategy of economic growth financing in Russia. We prove that the strategy should be based on the transformation of economic structure of consumption and savings towards more intensive capital accumulation. Using the market measures of control will reduce the adverse effects associated with redistribution of financial resources and channeling them to investment, and enhance the positive trends in the creation of sources for economic growth. On this basis, within the monetary, fiscal and general economic regulation, we offer tools that constitute the key pillar for the strategy to finance the economic growth in Russia.
Conclusions The findings may be useful for development of financial and economic policy of the Russian Federation.


Budget maneuvering as a tool of the fiscal policy of Russia

Volkov I.I. Plekhanov Russian University of Economics, Moscow, Russian Federation ( winner.06@mail.ru )

Journal: Finance and Credit, #21, 2016

Importance The article investigates budget maneuvering, i.e. a combination of different ways to curtail public expenditure, as a tool of fiscal policy.
Objectives The goal is to develop methodological and practical recommendations for less painful cuts in government spending from the point of view of Russia's GDP behavior pattern through using various tools.
Methods The methodological basis of the work is formal and dialectical logic used to identify major ways of budget maneuvering, deduction and induction – to justify the identified ways, and mathematical logic, which is involved in the analysis of their impact on Russia's GDP.
Results I offer three ways of budget maneuvering, namely proportional (i.e. sequestration), dotted (cutting and/or closure of national economic programs), and tax-based (affecting expenditures by tax burden redistribution). The proportional way of cutting public expenditure predetermines a direct impact on aggregate demand, dotted – on investing channel of GDP formation, and tax-based – on fiscal aspects. The paper provides an analysis of all the three ways.
Conclusions and Relevance Using the budget maneuvering in Russia may lead to reduction in public spending with less adverse effect on business activity. The findings may be used for formulating the fiscal policy of the Russian Federation by relevant policy-makers, as well as for further exploration of the issue by the scientific community.


Distinctive characteristics of human capital among older age groups of the population in the northern region: Evidence from the Republic of Karelia

Volkov A.D. Institute of Economics, Karelian Research Centre of Russian Academy of Sciences, Petrozavodsk, Republic of Karelia, Russian Federation ( kov-vol@rambler.ru )

Journal: National Interests: Priorities and Security, #2, 2019

Subject The article discusses issues of employing the retirement age groups of people, considering the population aging trend.
Objectives The research identifies practices of employing the retirement age people in the northern area of the Russian Federation.
Methods I applied methods of institutional and logic analysis. The empirical framework comprises data of qualitative surveys as part of the socio-economic study into manpower reproduction in 2018.
Results Based on data of semi-structured interviews of top management, I conducted the content analysis of factors influencing employment practices with respect to the third age group of people. Such factors are considered to include the personnel policy with respect to the retirement age employees, corporate technological structure, production specifics, corporate social policy, specifics of pensioners' employment. The article reveals contemporary practices of employing people from older age groups.
Conclusions and Relevance The above tools allow to trace key HR approaches to the third age employees. Considering limitations of the northern economically distressed area, it is vital for most enterprises to employ the retirement age people due to comparative advantages offered by such human capital, and practices allowing to erase its weaknesses. This research may prove valuable for HR policies and regional programs for socio-economic development.


SWOT analysis of financial sources for the Russian economy growth

Burlachkov V.K. Plekhanov Russian University of Economics, Moscow, Russian Federation ( burlachkov.vk@rea.ru )

Volkov I.I. Plekhanov Russian University of Economics, Moscow, Russian Federation ( winner.06@mail.ru )

Journal: Financial Analytics: Science and Experience, #40, 2016

Importance The article discusses internal and external factors that form financial sources bolstering a growth in the Russian economy.
Objectives The research analyzes external and internal factors that build up financial sources stimulating a growth in the Russian Federation. Using a SWOT analysis, we evaluated their positive and negative effects.
Methods The research relies upon such methods as formal and mathematical logic, extrapolation, induction and deduction.
Results We determined internal and external factors that form financial sources bolstering the Russian economy growth. The article also indicates principal trends in the effect respective factors have on the formation of financial sources. Based on that, we classified the factors in terms of the SWOT analysis. Following the SWOT analysis, we prepared our recommendations on managing the sources formation process, which were presented as strategies, thus allowing to consider them in the context of macroeconomic regulation, rather than theoretical perspectives only.
Conclusions and Relevance We identified weaknesses and strengths of the Russian economy in terms of the formation of financial sources that stimulated its growth, and articulated strategies to steer the process provided positive factors had higher effect, while negative ones weakened. The article may prove useful to devise a model for developing the Russian economy in the short-term, mid-term and long-term run.


Inflation targeting and economic growth: Dichotomy or correlation?

Volkov I.I. Plekhanov Russian University of Economics (PRUE), Moscow, Russian Federation ( winner.06@mail.ru )

Skarednov E.V. Plekhanov Russian University of Economics (PRUE), Moscow, Russian Federation ( skarednov_ugen@mail.ru )

Journal: Finance and Credit, #4, 2019

Subject The article studies whether the inflation targeting policy of the Central Bank of Russia can coexist with the macroeconomic intention of spurring the GDP growth.
Methods The research is mainly based on tools of mathematical, formal and dialectic logic, analysis and synthesis, induction and deduction.
Results We conducted the vector regression analysis to evaluate the correlation of GDP and monetary tools with 2014–2016. Key tools of inflation targeting have a limited impact on the economic growth level. We considered how measures of the Central Bank of Russia in 2014–2016 influenced the efficiency of the budgetary policy. To evaluate what effect inflation targeting had on the economic growth in 2017–2018, we applied the equation of fiscal restrictions imposed by the government. This type of monetary policy was found to considerably stabilize macroeconomic conditions in Russia for the said period. The economy and fiscal deficit may be much better improved if the difference between inflation (not exceeding the target) and key rate is as little as possible provided the economic growth is highly sensitive to inflation and key rate.
Conclusions The research determined limits and prospects for applicability of inflation targeting to stimulate business activities in Russia in the short- and mid-run. The findings can be used to formulate provisions on the regulation of monetary policy for spurring the economic growth.


National debt in global economy: new levels of risk

Volkov R.G. Institute of Economic Forecasting, RAS, Moscow, Russian Federation ( italyroma@mail.ru )

Journal: Financial Analytics: Science and Experience, #14, 2015

Importance The crisis of 2008 resulted in a drastic growth in national debt of some developed economies. It therefore caused a rise in global debt burden and a threat to global economic development. In this respect, it is necessary to have a clear understanding of the current trends and situation in relation to national debts of the above countries and global economy as a whole.
     Objectives The research aims at analyzing trends and a growth pace of national debts in developed and developing countries, and global economy as a whole for the recent years, identifying specific countries or their alliances that have the highest level of national debt, evaluating debt risks and possibilities to manage them.
     Methods Based on data of international economic organizations and quantitative and statistical analysis, I analyze the growth pace and current indicators of sovereign debt in some countries and world's regions.
     Results The article illustrates the dynamics of national debt and current composition of debt burden in global economy. Considering a smooth and stable growth for the recent 15 years, I find out that the trend becomes more typical of developed countries, rather than developing ones, and it gets concentrated in developed countries.
     Conclusions and Relevance I conclude that the global economy has three debt-laden 'poles', i.e. the USA, Japan and the EU. The USA and Japan demonstrate certain stability margin and have tools to manage and regulate their national debt; meanwhile the EU countries seem to suffer from internal constraints. It creates risks for the EU and global economy as a whole.


The impact of economic sanctions on the regional feedstuff production (the Volgograd oblast case study)

Volkov S.K. Volgograd State Technical University, Volgograd, Russian Federation ( rambiente2@rambler.ru )

Orlova O.V. Volgograd State Technical University, Volgograd, Russian Federation ( olga_orlova@mail.ru )

Vorokhov N.D. Volgograd State Technical University, Volgograd, Russian ( Federationghnikit@mail.ru )

Journal: Regional Economics: Theory and Practice, #34, 2015

Importance The article discusses the problems of the economic impact on the livestock of the Volgograd oblast. The paper considers the impact of economic sanctions on two major enterprises of the Volgograd oblast, engaged in the production of fodder and vitamin and mineral supplements for farm animals.
     Objectives The aim of the study is to identify the dependencies of price movements and volume of production of premixes and protein products on procurement changes of components of this type of feed additives.
     Methods A content analysis of the official State Statistics Service data, as well as textual material of printed periodicals served as a methodological basis of the study.
     Results We evaluated the activities of the two region's enterprises engaged in the production of fodder additives; studied the effectiveness of the import substitution program in the agricultural sector; analyzed the usefulness of different types of protein feed supplements as an alternative to imports; and revealed a high degree of dependence of the livestock industry in the oblast on importing components for the production of fodder additives.
     Conclusions and Relevance We concluded that there is no impact of economic sanctions on the livestock industry of the Volgograd oblast. The results of this research can be used in the development of special economic measures relating to the prohibition of importation of certain agricultural products. We offer certain recommendations for further implementation of the import substitution program to reduce the dependency of individual sectors of the agro-industrial complex on foreign goods.


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