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Russia: prospects for innovation development

Kuznetsova G.V. Plekhanov Russian University of Economics, Moscow, Russian Federation ( )

Journal: National Interests: Priorities and Security, #6, 2015

The article reviews the basic indicators of scientific and technological capacities of Russia in comparison with those typical of other developed and developing countries. It presents evidence of widening gaps in research and development not only of the most advanced, but also some developing countries. The gap is largely due to the low size of funding science, particularly fundamental. Lack of attention to this area is reflected in the reduction in the number of researchers, scientific institutes and design organizations. The paper shows that the main problems of scientific and innovation policy are imbalance, inconsistency in the formulation and implementation of scientific and innovation priorities. Currently on the agenda, there is a necessity to break out of the situation, though various catch-up mechanisms of development are often proposed as a way out. The article highlights the risk of this type of policy. To overcome the backlog of problems, the paper is offering to bring back the proposed in the 1950-ies in the USSR, the concept of "overtake with no catching up" and focus on areas related to the sixth technological wave: nano-, bio-and IT-technologies. It gives the examples of already existing in these areas the achievements of Russian Science, which suggests a certain potential for breakthrough innovation. The author concludes that the more open Russian market, the enhanced adaptation of domestic legislation to international norms and the best practices, greater integration into the global economic system would improve Russia's business climate, competitiveness and investment attractiveness of services and technologies.

Information efficiency of modern financial markets: clarifying the concepts

Kuznetsova L.G. Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russian Federation ( )

Journal: Finance and Credit, #37, 2015

Subject The study addresses the specifics of the information set of the modern financial market, which concern the work of traders with trading positions, the psychology of traders' perception of new information, based on which they build their trading strategies.
     Objectives The study aims to analyze the efficient market theory. Despite the controversy of some of its ideas, there are many works on the analysis of particular economic situations related to information support to the market functioning.
I applied general theoretical techniques to examine the information set of modern financial markets, using the analytical methodology to consider certain ideas of the efficient market theory.
I have considered the fundamental postulates of the efficient market theory, which relate to information support. The article substantiates a critical viewpoint on the ways to measure the degree of market efficiency, proposed by Western authors. It also presents a trader classification by separate groups, depending on the information they use to make a deal. Under the efficient market theory, traders operate with three types of information, i.e. past, current and insider information. The article addresses the methods of analyzing the past information. It focuses on the possibility to manipulate current information, and analyzes the actions and motivation of traders working with different types of market information.
     Conclusions I underpin the conclusion on the need for special research of the information component of modern market trading processes, using certain tenets of the efficient market theory.

Sustainable development of rural territories: domestic and foreign experience of regional programs development

Kuznetsova E.V. Penza State Agricultural Academy, Penza, Russian Federation ( )

Journal: Regional Economics: Theory and Practice, #35, 2014

Importance A vast part of the Russian Federation territory is of a clearly expressed rural nature. The modern global challenges associated with the supply of foodstuff to an increasing number of the global population, struggle against the poverty, prevention of the negative impact on the climate and water resources, can be solved only by ensuring the sustainable development of rural territories. Thus, production of high-quality foodstaff and raw materials for food and processing industry comes to the forefront. In this regard, programs for a sustainable development of the rural territories, which include the perspective directions of the development of the rural areas, the innovative solutions of the environmental and social problems assume an urgency.
     Objective The purpose of the article is the development of measures to improve the sustainable development of rural areas.
     Methods To achieve this goal, I have solved the following tasks: studied the basics of the concept of sustainable development; analyzed the European programs for the sustainable development of rural territories; developed the activities aimed at the improvement of the national programs of the sustainable development of rural areas. Based on the method of comparative analysis, I studied the different aspects of programs of a sustainable development of rural territories of Germany and Russia.
     Results I have defined the most perspective actions for improvement of regional programs.
     Conclusions and Relevance I came to a conclusion that in the conditions of application of the concept of a sustainable development, it is necessary to consider an ecological aspect of development of rural territories, as well as to solve the employment issues of the carried out transformations.

Innovation security and priorities of implementing the innovation policy in Russia

Kuznetsova E.I. Moscow University of Ministry of Interior of Russian Federation named after V.Y. Kikot, Moscow, Russian Federation ( )

Journal: National Interests: Priorities and Security, #31, 2015

Importance The article overviews the formation of the national innovation mechanism that would be resistant to contemporary challenges and threats. The mechanism is a cornerstone for Russia to achieve its global strategic goals and ensure its economic security. Innovation security requires sustainable development of the scientific and technological basis, education, IT and intellectual area.
     Objectives The objective of the research is to evaluate the national innovation system that links the economic policy, science, education, and innovation security level. For this, I analyzed the innovation sector as it is, thereby finding that there is a gap between technologies created in R&D and their use in mass production.
     Methods Using econometric methods, I analyzed various aspects of innovation activities; determine factors that contribute to the economic security. The research also relies upon the content analysis of various documents and sources, and horizontal comparative analysis.
     Results Following the research, I figure out that, currently, innovative development indicators fail to comply with target indicators that would launch the innovative development of Russia. The development pace and structure of the Russian R&D sector are not sufficient to reach target indicators. This is the main systemic problem for implementing the priorities of Russia's innovation policy.
     Conclusions and Relevance As the analysis shows, Russia's innovation security may be possible only if the target indicators of innovative development are met. The State innovation policy should also consider the structure of the economy that will lay the basis for continuous growth in population's standards of living in the long-run.

The main trends in the global market of Foreign Direct Investment in 2014: the situation in Russia

Kuznetsova G.V. Plekhanov Russian University of Economics, Moscow, Russian Federation ( )

Journal: National Interests: Priorities and Security, #42, 2015

Importance The article reviews new trends in global flows of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in 2014.
     Objectives The article characterizes the current global flows of capital, determines the place of Russia in the process, and analyzes the principal directions of the Russian capital flight. I tried to demonstrate the role of offshore jurisdictions and identify possible scenarios for FDI in Russia.
     Methods The research relies upon international and national statistical data.
     Results The article mentions that emerging economies strengthen their significance as recipient or sources of investment. I also emphasize the growing specific weight of China, which took the lead last year as the investee, and went second as a source of investment abroad. The research analyzes the role of transnational corporations in movements of FDI, mergers and acquisitions, and considers Russia's involvement in global capital flows, indicating a reduction of inward and outward FDI in 2014 as compared with the record high indicators of 2013. The article evaluates the UNCTAD forecast for three coming years.
     Conclusions and Relevance Currently, the Russian economy becomes less attractive as an investee, with the ongoing recession in many regions and worsening geopolitical situation impeding the development of the Russian businesses abroad. However, Russia remains one of the leaders using offshore jurisdictions for business purposes. I conclude that Russia will have strengthened its position in the global economic system by 2017 through the EEU integration, developed practice of free trade agreements, investment projects with China and other emerging economies, and domestic reforms.

Customer loyalty as a sales efficiency growth driver

Kuznetsova E.L. Kuban State University, Krasnodar, Russian Federation ( )

Getmanova A.V. Kuban State University, Krasnodar, Russian Federation ( )

Journal: Financial Analytics: Science and Experience, #4, 2016

Importance Loyalty program implies an array of marketing activities to boost repeat sales to the existing clientele in the future, sell additional goods and services, promote corporate ideas and values, and other types of potentially profitable behavior. It is very interesting to study how customer loyalty may be managed, since these are loyalty programs that constitute the most effective ways of bringing sales upwards.
     Objectives The research examines customer loyalty management methods. We extract the substance of loyalty programs, analyze their history, and find existing tools, criteria and possible options of loyalty programs.
     Methods We analyzed the management of customer loyalty as a method to boost sales. The research is based on sociological survey data, information and statistical data from Russian and foreign sources.
     Results The article reviews key concepts, characteristics and components of loyalty programs, and narrates their history. The research presents sociological surveys on discount cards and loyalty buttons, and provides insight into the main tools, criteria and types of loyalty programs.
     Conclusions and Relevance We conclude that discounts and bonuses are no longer attractive for customers. Sellers should better pay attention to more customized propositions in line with individual shopping record and customer’s behavior. Customer loyalty buttons appear as an effective and promising tool, since they can be used to manage customers’ emotional loyalty, satisfaction and quality of service.

Managing the capital structure of the largest Russian coal producers

Mukhacheva A.V. Kemerovo State University (KemSU), Kemerovo, Russian Federation ( )

Gadzhigasanova N.S. Yaroslavl Demidov State University, Yaroslavl, Russian Federation ( )

Kuznetsova T.A. Kemerovo State University (KemSU), Kemerovo, Russian Federation ( )

Journal: Economic Analysis: Theory and Practice, #2, 2019

Subject The article considers the capital structure of the three leaders of the Russian coal mining industry, namely AO SUEK, OAO UK Kuzbasrazrezugol, AO SDS Holding Company.
Objectives The aims are to reveal the main trends in the equity to debt ratio of the largest players of the Federal coal market on the basis of the analysis of public financial statements for three recent years, to justify the optimal structure of their capital.
Methods The study employs economic and statistical methods, grouping and integration of data, methods for calculating the weighted average cost of capital, the effect of financial leverage to identify the current structure and cost of sources of capital, the ‘profitability – financial risk’ methodology to give scientific credence to optimal capital structure of coal producers.
Results The existing capital structure of the largest coal mining companies in Russia deviates from the optimal one from the point of view of financial analytics and scientific methods. It is formed spontaneously, under the influence of external factors. This results in unrealized reserves of capital cost reduction. We revealed certain differences in approaches to formation of sources of capital of the coal industry leaders, which are determined by their general financial position and capacity to raise funds.
Conclusions The findings enable to identify growth in the area of efficiency of finance management, increase the competitiveness of the Russian coal in world markets, provide financial stability and profitability of export-oriented coal producers, protect them from foreign trade risks, etc.

Digitalization and domestic machine building: Prospects and risks

Kuznetsova G.V. Plekhanov Russian University of Economics (PRUE), Moscow, Russian Federation ( )

Korovkin V.V. SKOLKOVO Moscow School of Management, Skolkovo, Moscow Oblast, Russian Federation ( )

Journal: National Interests: Priorities and Security, #4, 2020

Subject. The article discusses the current and future development of domestic machine building as digital transformation processes are under way worldwide.
Objectives. The study explores how a new wave of S&T progress influences the coming future of the industry by predicting and analyzing domestic machine building as is. We also substantiate that, as the most critical part of the Russian economy, the machine building sector should be redesigned in terms of its structure and management so as to adapt to challenges brought by digitalization.
Methods. The study employs the logic systems analysis of statistical data and expert assessments, techniques for generalization and grouping, abstraction-logic method.
Results. The domestic machine building crisis was proved to still linger. Those meager achievements are not viable without the State aid. What describes the industry is that the Russian enterprises and products are hardly integrated into global chain values, resulting from their low competitiveness globally. Most of them are designated for the domestic market or even narrower regional markets.
Conclusions and Relevance. There is still no definite conclusion on the impact of digitalization on the future of domestic machine building. However, the industry is not very prepared for innovation, with the governmental domination of the economy impeding the innovative transformation, which requires the freedom of business. As a preliminary requirement for Russia to join a group of global leaders, it should create conditions for the free development of businesses by integrating into global value chains and become more competitive. The findings can underlie practical measures to formulate the industrial policy from macro- and microeconomic perspectives.

Developing the Russian machine-building complex by building industrial parks

Kuznetsov V.P. Minin Nizhny Novgorod State Pedagogical University, Nizhny Novgorod, Russian Federation ( )

Kuznetsova S.N. Minin Nizhny Novgorod State Pedagogical University, Nizhny Novgorod, Russian Federation ( )

Bulatova E.A. Minin Nizhny Novgorod State Pedagogical University, Nizhny Novgorod, Russian Federation ( )

Journal: Economic Analysis: Theory and Practice, #17, 2015

Subject The crisis in the global economy increased the importance of creating an effective management system of machine-building complex at different levels of the economy.
     Objectives The aim of the research is to develop the theoretical framework and methodological tools for implementing the mechanism of industrial parks building. To achieve this goal, we set the following objectives: to justify the development of industrial parks on the basis of large industrial enterprises as a tool for territorial development of inter-firm production networks; to determine the main functions of the industrial parks; to identify the factors and suggest the principles for the industrial parks' operation. In the conditions of Russia's accession to the WTO, the preservation and development of the Russian machine-building complex is a critical strategic objective faced by the national economy. The measures to support the industrial sector taken by the Russian Government have recently yielded positive results. First, owing to customs duties limiting the import of industrial products, major domestic industrial enterprises gained short-term competitive advantages. Secondly, public investment in such entities during the crisis helped them to avoid bankruptcy, and in some cases, to implement production modernization.
     Methods We used econometric methods to analyze various aspects of the mechanism of building industrial parks in regions, to identify the most effective systems of management of the machine-building complex at the regional level.
     Results We developed theoretical framework and methodological tools for implementing the organizational-economic mechanism of industrial parks formation. They represent a combination of economic and organizational tools and relationships focused on the integration of large machine builders and industrial enterprises of small and medium-sized business into a single production-technological network.
     Conclusions and Relevance We conclude that the transition from the departmental system of management of the Russian industry to the corporate one has caused the disintegration of industrial enterprises, which have a common value chain. Building inter-firm production networks on the basis of industrial parks will ensure the competitiveness of industrial enterprises in the coming years.

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