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Istratov V.A. PhD of Economic Sciences, Senior Researcher, the Laboratory of Experimental Economics, CEMI RAS ( firstname.lastname@example.org )
Noakk N.V. PhD of Psychological Sciences, Leading Researcher of Laboratory of Experimental Economics, CEMI RAS ( email@example.com )
Patosha O.I. PhD of Psychological Sciences, Associate Professor, the Department of Organization Psychology, the National Research University "Higher School of Economics" ( firstname.lastname@example.org )
Journal: National Interests: Priorities and Security, #22,
In the article the first phase of the planned by the author’s interdisciplinary study - psychological and economical are presented. The short description of initial model of the economic agent and initial option of a questionnaire on detection of psychological characteristics of the agent acting in the economic environment, his appointments and structure are given.
Istratov V.A. Central Economics and Mathematics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russian Federation ( email@example.com )
Journal: National Interests: Priorities and Security, #11,
Importance The article presents a comparative analysis of theories on the emergence of social norms that are the subject matter of economics, sociology and psychology. Currently there is no theory on the emergence of such norms, which would be generally accepted or at least prevailing.
Objectives The research identifies common features and patterns in the emergence of such norms, generally formulates an algorithmic scheme of setting up the norms, on the basis of the theories studied.
Methods The research overviews the existing theories, which, directly or indirectly, concern the emergence of social norms. I derive the existing principles out of the theories or formulate them, unless they are explicitly indicated, and subsequently compare them.
Results Most of the theories construe a principle or norm as a set of behavior constraints conveyed by certain coercive measures. As for the emergence of social norms, they basically arise when there is a need to increase individual or public effectiveness of activities subject to this norm or principle.
Conclusions and Relevance As the analysis shows, the theories on the emergence of social norms and principles concerning various social sciences have some common traits, thus merging them into the algorithm for setting any social norm and principle.
Istratov V.A. Central Economics and Mathematics Institute, Russian Academy Sciences, Moscow, Russian Federation ( firstname.lastname@example.org )
Journal: Economic Analysis: Theory and Practice, #1,
Importance The article compares theories of social norms onset in economics, sociology and law, i.e. social sciences that address the issues of norms most closely.
Objectives I identify common features and patterns of norm development.
Methods The comparison draws on two aspects: first, I compare interpretations of the norm concept, of which the theories of norms onset came out; secondly, I compare the theories of norms onset and, in some cases, subsequent norm development.
Results The analysis of relevant literature shows that the interpenetration of theories in these areas of knowledge is large, and it is possible to highlight common key elements and associate them with each other. A norm is generally understood in most theories as a set of restrictions on conduct supported by certain coercive measures. As for developing a social norm, it may take several paths, but the most popular explanatory factor is the enhancement of individual or societal effectiveness in carrying out actions regulated by the norm.
Conclusions Theories about the genesis of norms are rather scattered and fragmentary, in some cases they are even contradictory. On the one hand, this is due to differences in research priorities of the sciences themselves and, on the other hand, there is a lack of consensus on concepts and processes that define them. It is, therefore, important to develop a theory of social norms formation. The findings may be useful for modeling the socio-economic relationships, in particular, in different paradigms of simulation.
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