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Forms and directions of government support for small business: Evidence from the USA

Emel'yanov E.V. Institute for the U.S. and Canadian Studies RAS, Moscow, Russian Federation ( ee_79@mail.ru )

Frizyak N.S. Institute for the U.S. and Canadian Studies RAS, Moscow, Russian Federation ( shyter777@gmail.com )

Journal: Financial Analytics: Science and Experience, #4, 2018

Subject This article considers and describes the principal directions and forms of government support for small business in the USA.
Objectives The article aims to analyze the modern government policy on small business as well as show its orientation and significance for entrepreneurship development among particular social and ethnic groups.
Methods The research involves the methods of logic, statistical, and comparative analyses, and the comprehensive approach.
Results We identify certain key measures of government support for small business in terms of the world crisis. They enlarge the access to financial resources for small enterprises, help realize public contracts, provide the development of small business export availability. The results show the focus of these measures on particular population including below-average income groups, and involvement in entrepreneurial activities.
Conclusions and Relevance Support for small business is one of the most important component of social and economic public regulation. The US practice shows a special importance of entrepreneur development programs for socially vulnerable population groups, raising their economic activities. It can be useful in the Russian SME's practice and enlargement of small business supporting forms including low developed regions.


Management of regional retirement systems in the USA

Emel'yanov S.V. Institute for the U.S. and Canadian Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russian Federation ( es73@mail.ru )

Petrovskaya N.E. Institute for the U.S. and Canadian Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russian Federation ( vitern@mail.ru )

Journal: Digest Finance, #1, 2017

Importance The article examines the specifics of socio-economic policies for retirement benefits at the level of states and local authorities, specifics of managing public defined retirement plans of the regional level in the USA, which are funded through contributions of states’ governments, local authorities, employees, as well as return on investment of amounts earmarked for retirement benefits in shares, bonds and other instruments.
Objectives The research comprehensively reviews the role of regional pension funds, specifics of investment of amounts designated for retirement benefits and inherent risks, significance of return on investment out of total revenue from short-term and long-term perspectives.
Methods Using a systems approach, economic, statistical and logic methods, comparative analysis and original sources, we studied the U.S. practices of developing regional retirement systems.
Results Having analyzed the development of regional retirement systems comprehensively, we identified key principles of their operation, development trends, specifics of retirement assets management, mix of investment portfolios, current and non-current risks.
Conclusions and Relevance Having analyzed trends in revenue and payments under retirement plans of the states and local governments, role of investment income against total revenue, the retirement systems were found to have high financial and economic capabilities, but had to face certain challenges arising from recession in particular. Trends in the asset-to-liability ratio shows a growing issue of unfunded retirement plans, which require governments of states and local authorities to increase contribution rates and subsequently improve those plans.


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