Subject. The article addresses the influence of the status and place of border territories on the state and efficiency of agriculture in regions of South Siberia bordering Mongolia. Objectives. The purpose of the study is to identify the specifics of agriculture in the territories bordering Mongolia in southern Siberia and assess its effectiveness. Methods. The study employs comparison of various characteristics of constituent entities of the Russian Federation, which are in specific conditions, among themselves and with the rest of the regions of corresponding federal districts; typification of border territories, taking into account the status of subjects, their location and trans-boundary nature; fiscal equalization of constituent entities of the Russian Federation. Results. The paper states that the specifics of border regions of southern Siberia is a high share of agriculture in the output, especially in the Republic of Altai and Tyva. However, these two republics differ significantly in the structure of agricultural production. The economic efficiency of the agrarian sphere is substantially diversified and its level impedes sustainable development. Conclusions. To increase the efficiency of agricultural production in border regions of southern Siberia it is important to increase governmental financial support at the federal level; to improve estimated fiscal capacity of border subjects of the Russian Federation so that they could support agricultural producers from their own budgets.
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