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Renovation of fixed capital in the real sector: The potential of import substitution and economic security

Vyakina I.V. Tver State Technical University, Tver, Russian Federation ( vyakina@yahoo.com )

Journal: Economic Analysis: Theory and Practice, #5, 2017

Importance One of the key threats to economic security of Russia from the strategic perspective is a technological lag, which depends on the scale of investment in fixed assets and the industrial and technological potential. Solving this problem objectively requires significant changes in the nature of renovation the technical and technological base.
Objectives The article aims at researching the processes of fixed capital reproduction in the real sector in the context of regional economic complexes and systematization of scientific knowledge on fixed asset renovation to ensure economic independence and security under import phase-out.
Methods I apply traditional methods of scientific analysis, techniques of economic and mathematical statistics, technical-economic and logical analysis, graphic simulation, systematization and ranking as a methodological basis of the study.
Results The article overviews the problem of overcoming the technological backwardness through updating the production facilities in the national science and business practices. It describes the process of production asset renewal by economic activities, assesses the opportunities for its implementation under import substitution, analyzes the intensity of property, plant and equipment renovation from regional perspective and the role of subjects of the Russian Federation in import substitution.
Conclusions The findings testify to the need for a clear justification of mechanisms for fixed capital renovation and continuation of further research in this field.


Spatial differentiation of regions' investment appeal in the context of economic security

Vyakina I.V. Tver State Technical University, Tver, Russian Federation ( vyakina@yahoo.com )

Journal: Economic Analysis: Theory and Practice, #8, 2017

Importance The Russian Federation is characterized by significant differences in socio-economic conditions for investment activities in regions. For the purposes of economic security, it is crucial to consider the fact that regions with different levels of development have different economic interests and growth opportunities within a single economic space.
Objectives The purpose of the study is to examine reasons for spatial imbalances in development and investment attractiveness from the economic security perspective and their impact on the nature of regional investment processes under economic sanctions and Russia's foreign economic relations restructuring.
Methods The study relies on traditional methods of scientific analysis, economic and mathematical statistics, techno-economic and logical analysis, graphical and economic-mathematical modeling, etc.
Results The paper examines the importance of single economic and investment space to ensure national economic security, identifies reasons for qualitative differences in investment appeal of Russian regions, assesses investment concentration in constituent entities of the Russian Federation, analyzes spatial distribution of foreign investments prior to imposition of economic sanctions by Western countries and their outflow in the process of Russia's economic relations restructuring.
Conclusions It is possible to mitigate spatial heterogeneity of investment attractiveness of subjects of the Russian Federation through registration of enterprises based on the place of their actual activities, enhancement of interactions and economic relations within the economic space of the Russian Federation.


Business integration and quasi-integration as part of investing in economic security

Vyakina I.V. Tver State Technical University, Tver, Russian Federation ( vyakina@yahoo.com )

Journal: National interests: priorities and security, #5, 2017

Importance National interests of Russia, economy of the country, regions and industries mean that the economy should be capable of generating the continuing investment process supporting the reproduction of national wealth and sustainable development and strategic competitiveness of the national economy.
Objectives The research examines the substance of business integration and quasi-integration as mechanisms for investing in economic security. I also identify how business integration influences the nature and mechanisms of cash flow management.
Methodology The research employs such conventional methods as analysis and synthesis, observation, induction and deduction, systems approach, graphical method.
Results I scrutinized such constructs as integration and quasi-integration and proposed my own classification of combined business structures by type of integration ties. Various integration forms were found to be significant for economic security investment.
Conclusions and Relevance Business structure components can have integration and quasi-integration nexus. The nature of integration ties directly influences the management of business structures, investment risk level and cash flow management mechanisms. Diversified integration generates higher effect in less advanced economies. This effect stems from intragroup maneuvering of financial resources, since it is necessary to establish business structures reducing transaction costs and adapting to the weakness of institutions, when capital markets and their institutional regulators are weak due to insufficient financial injections.


The definition of economic security at the micro-, meso- and macrolevels: Conceptual issues

Vyakina I.V. Tver State Technical University, Tver, Russian Federation ( vyakina@yahoo.com )

Journal: National interests: priorities and security, #6, 2016

Importance The article discusses conceptual scientific approaches to defining the substance and structural components of economic security in terms of the development of socio-economic systems at the micro-, meso- and macrolevels.
Objectives The research systematizes scientific knowledge on economic security and substantiates my own views on the substance of economic security of the socio-economic system at various spatial levels.
Methods The methodological framework relies upon a combination of scientific methods of economic analysis, such as methods of induction and deduction, logic abstraction, causality, functionality, systems, methods of historical and comparative analysis, etc.
Results The article overviews the substance of target economic security indicators in scientific literature, systematizes scientific stances on the category in question. I point out key conceptual approaches to studying economic security in line with scholars' views and assertions, substantiates my own views, thus revealing the substance of the economic security concept in term of the development of socio-economic systems at the micro-, meso- and macrolevels.
Conclusions and Relevance Economic security is spatially measured depending on researches into economic systems and their level, since every actor of economic activities independently takes its business decisions on the use of resources, operations and development so to improve its competitive advantages in the respective economic area. Target assertions are similar since they refer to identical processes influencing the various levels of economic security.


Institutional restrictions of investment processes as a threat to national interests

Vyakina I.V. Tver State Technical University, Tver, Russian Federation ( vyakina@yahoo.com )

Journal: National interests: priorities and security, #6, 2017

Importance National economic interests of Russia require the national economic system to evolve, generate income, ensure the reproduction and renewal of the capital stock. To examine methods for unleashing the investment processes and reproduction of the capital stock, it is necessary to analyze the existing investment barriers and restrictions.
Objectives The research identifies institutional restrictions to investment processes and examines institutional barriers of the Russian Federation, their causes and possible solutions.
Methods To examine the investment processes in the Russian Federation, I apply conventional methods for a scientific analysis, economic and mathematical statistics, feasibility and logic studies, graphic modeling and mathematical modeling in economics.
Results The article analyzes the current situation in the investment sector while investment and technological ties weaken in the global economy and consumer growth falls. I identify the most significant institutional barriers that obstruct capital investment at the current phase of the Russian economic development. I provide my own system of the main formal and informal institutional restrictions in the Russian Federation.
Conclusions and Relevance According to the Russian and foreign experts, ownership rights and the freedom of investors' decision-making are insufficiently protected in Russia. This is a serious problem that can be resolved if the business and investment climate is improved through institutional changes, thus increasing the confidence level. Gaining the confidence takes time. In this respect, it requires forming the civil society and reformatting the country into the State that protects the private life, strictly controls financial and business operations of governmental enterprises.


Investment support to social and economic development in the context of market-oriented reforms of Russia's economy

Vyakina I.V. Tver State Technical University, Tver, Russian Federation ( vyakina@yahoo.com )

Journal: Economic Analysis: Theory and Practice, #2, 2016

Importance Economic development implies the capacity of a socioeconomic system for a sustainable and expanded reproduction, which is associated with investment support and its efficiency. Renovation and expanded reproduction of fixed capital and social development depend on the scale and efficiency of investment.
Objectives The study aims at analyzing the specifics of economic development of Russia in the historical context based on investment criteria during the transition to regulated market; identifying the key drivers of economic growth at different stages during the market transformation of Russian economy; assessing the level of social development in relation to investment and financial factors.
Methods Methodological framework includes traditional methods of scientific analysis, economic and mathematical statistics, technical, economic and logical analysis, graphic simulation, mathematical modeling in economics, etc.
Results I systematize stages of Russian economy's market transformation during the reform; provide qualitative characteristic of economic development specifics at each stage; identify general links between the nature of investment process and the level of economic development; identify key factors of economic growth at every stage, and disclose their specifics.
Conclusions The current investment crisis in Russia is logical, as despite extensive discussion on exhausted potential of the export-and-resource-based development model, there are no significant changes in this area. Low social indicators, high country risk, steady distrust of potential investors in State institutions, absence of effective mechanism for protection of property rights and capital investment, as well as mechanisms for transformation of savings into investments are the main reasons underlying the crisis.


The security of economic development of the Russian Federation amid increasing geopolitical threats

Vyakina I.V. Tver State Technical University, Tver, Russian Federation ( vyakina@yahoo.com )

Journal: National interests: priorities and security, #5, 2016

Importance As global and regional instability increments, countries are vying for resources and distribution markets, the global geopolitical situation escalates due to the deteriorating social and political environment. Political factors have a higher influence on economic processes, with economic methods being used to solve geopolitical and national challenges.
Objectives The research identifies positions and prospects of Russia's economic development as part of the evolving model of global economy to ensure the security of sustainable economic growth amid increasing geopolitical threats.
Methods I used methods of comparative, logic, economic and statistical analyses. The research is based on a critical overview of proceedings by national and foreign scholars, legislative regulations and statistical data of the International Monetary Fund, Federal Statistics Service and Federal Customs Service.
Results I examined the geopolitical situation so to understand the place and role of the Russian Federation within the global economic model. The article discloses the specific substance of economic security in the national security system, and analyzed spatial distribution of global economy, structure of global capital and Russia's position in the global economy. I substantiate my own concept for security of sustainable development of national economy amid increasing geopolitical threats.
Conclusions and Relevance Development security of the Russian Federation depends not only on objective and common economic factors and resources but also on environmental and social aspects. The extent to which the economy is protected from probable destabilizing factors stems from the existing political, legislative and social relationships, with geopolitical conditions remaining rather unpredictable and high risk of extensive financial and economic crises.


Corruption and formation of investment attractiveness of the region

Alexandrov G.A. Doctor of Economics, Professor, the Department of Economics and Management of Production, the Tver State Technical University ( g-alexandrov@rambler.ru )

Vyakina I.V. PhD in Economics, Associate Professor, the Department of Economics and Management of Production, the Tver State Technical University ( ivyakina@yahoo.com )

Kandaurov M.A. Graduate Student, the Department of Economics and Management of Production, the Tver State Technical University ( mkandaurov@inbox.ru )

Journal: Regional Economics: Theory and Pactice, #24, 2013

In the article diversity and complexity of the problems of deep modernization of the Russian economy objectively require the involvement of the relevant investment are investigated. Naturally, the investment activity largely depends on the investment attractiveness of the country, region, and business. Representatives of policies, practices, researchers divert attention corruption as the most important factor which determines the attractiveness for investment. This phenomenon has become a very serious obstacle to investment


Peat mining industry in Russia: Regeneration and the development prospects

Aleksandrov G.A. Tver State Technical University, Tver, Russian Federation ( g-alexandrov@rambler.ru )

Skvortsova G.G. Tver State Technical University, Tver, Russian Federation ( gala-skvortsova@yandex.ru )

Vyakina I.V. Tver State Technical University, Tver, Russian Federation ( ivyakina@yahoo.com )

Yablonev A.L. Tver State Technical University, Tver, Russian Federation ( alvovich@mail.ru )

Journal: National interests: priorities and security, #8, 2016

Importance The article discusses the role and place of the peat industry in the national economy, the necessity and possibility of its revival and development, as well as the basic prerequisites for the establishment of an adequate economic management mechanism.
Objectives The article aims to assess the relevance of the revival of peat mining activity in Russia; define the quantitative and qualitative parameters of this activity; formulate the basic directions of development of measures the implementation of which should ensure the achievement of these parameters.
Methods For the study, we used historical and logical methods of research and system analysis.
Results We propose an algorithm to consider the issue of factors and arguments (pros and cons), which condition the necessity and possibility of reviving the peat industry, and we present certain perspectives and organizational and economic conditions for its development.
Conclusions The article contains the issues to be discussed. The problem described has never been considered in detail in scientific literature, so the arguments presented in favor of the revival of the peat industry are not always sufficiently substantiated and convincing.


Analysis of risks and threats to economic security of the region

Dyuzhilova O.M. Tver State Technical University, Tver, Russian Federation ( olga.dyuzhilova@mail.ru )

Vyakina I.V. Tver State Technical University, Tver, Russian Federation ( ivyakina@yahoo.com )

Journal: Regional Economics: Theory and Pactice, #14, 2015

Importance The article considers the economic security of the regions, ways of diagnosing and eliminating sources of danger for economic growth. We chose the Tver region as a case study for the consideration of assessment of economic security.
     Objectives The objective of the paper is to analyze the theory and methodology of assessment of economic security on the basis of the diagnosis of regional industry economic risks and identify the sources of risks and priorities of regional economic growth.
     Methods For the study, we used statistical probabilistic risk assessment methods based on the evaluation of the variation of yield of sectors of the regional economy.
     Results We analyzed data on the potential economic risks and explored different approaches to measuring and diagnosis of risk. We propose an approach, based on an assessment of the level of profitability and risk for branches of the regional economy to identify the source of danger and have an impact on it by the Government. We have also considered how to increase the level of security for the regional economy and create conditions for its further development due to the identified priorities and weaknesses. We grounded the system ensuring the economic security of the region, revealed the content of risks and threats. We assessed the reliability and stability of profitability of individual sectors of the region. In addition, we have identified the main priorities of economic development of the region, the "pain points", i.e. the industries, which may be a source of risk and destabilize the economic security of the region.
     Conclusions and Relevance The significance of the study is in organizing the economic activities in the Tver region that corresponds to the Russian average level of development by major indicators. The proposed tools can be useful to substantiate the economic security strategy at the regional level.


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