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Demographic development in the light of population census

Sinitsa A.L. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russian Federation ( sinitsa@econ.msu.ru )

Journal: Regional Economics: Theory and Pactice, #4, 2017

Importance The article deals with the issues of census data and information on the number of households in the country and change in their characteristics.
Objectives The article aims to study the changes in the number of households and households with children under 18 years of age, the number of their members, their average size, and the proportion of households with children up to 18 years among all the households in the regions of Russia in 2002–2010.
Methods For the study, I used demographic statistics data and the methods of logical analysis.
Results For the intercensal period, the number of households has decreased in Russia, but the decline was minimal or there was a growth even in regions with high birth rates or high standard of living. The average size of households has declined as well. This suggests a nucleation of the society.
Conclusions The article concludes that in the development of government policies to increase the number of households and households with children under 18 years of age, the main areas are: the implementation of the provisions of the adopted regulations, linking demographic indicators with the economic ones, infrastructure development, improvement of living standards, and the strengthening of the family institution.


Care for preschool children and the demographic security of Russia

Sinitsa A.L. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russian Federation ( sinitsa@econ.msu.ru )

Journal: National interests: priorities and security, #12, 2016

Importance Currently is is very reasonable and timely to examine care for preschoolers as a factor of demographic behavior and security in Russia, considering that women’s employment and birth rates are mutually related in developed countries.
Objectives The research reviews whether birth rates and demographic security can be increased by developing the system of preschool facilities.
Methods Relying upon definitions of demographic security and proceedings of national and foreign experts, I reviewed approaches to studying preschooler care practices as a factor of demographic behavior. Based on data of the Russian State Statistics Service, I examined trends in the development of preschool facilities within 2005–2013.
Results Child care was proved to considerably influence the birth rate. Therefore, higher birth rates require an active policy in this respect.
Conclusions and Relevance It is necessary to smooth social contradictions and reserve certain vacant capacity for newcomers in the system of preschool facilities. It requires new preschool facilities, considering a probable change in their specialization, set up ancillary childcare institutions, enhance the prestige of childcare and improve the quality of social processes management.


Spatial features of the distribution of abortion per a hundred childbirths in the Russian Federation in 1993–2014

Sinitsa A.L. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russian Federation ( sinitsa@econ.msu.ru )

Journal: Regional Economics: Theory and Pactice, #7, 2017

Subject The article discusses the issues of induced abortion in the context of regional differentiation.
Objectives The research considers the time patterns of induced abortion per 100 deliveries in Russia and the regions within 1993–2014.
Methods For the study, I used the logical analysis methods, the convergence concept, and the hierarchical clustering based on the Ward's method.
Results From 1993 to 2014, the number of abortions per 100 childbirths decreased almost every year and fell from 235 to 48. The Southern and North Caucasian Federal Districts are found in the most favorable situation, the Ural, Siberian and Far Eastern Federal Districts are the least favored ones. However, regional differentiation (coefficient of variation) has increased, and differences in the rate of change in the indicator have declined. I have identified eight greater and four smaller clusters of the Russian regions, using the Ward's method.
Conclusions To formulate public policies to reduce the number of abortions per 100 births, the main areas to consider are as follows: improving the standard of living of the population, raising the public consciousness of the value of family life and children, raising the awareness of safe methods of contraception, preventing unintended pregnancies, and developing the psychological assistance.


Preschooler care costs as part of childcare costs: A theoretical analysis

Sinitsa A.L. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russian Federation ( sinitsa@econ.msu.ru )

Journal: National interests: priorities and security, #6, 2016

Importance Whereas it is necessary to effectively spend finance and monitor how the efficiency of demographic policies for child birth are evaluated, currently it is very important to classify expenses for childcare.
Objectives The research examines childcare expenses and determines how much preschooler care costs and upbringing costs account for as part of childcare costs of people involved in the process.
Methods I determined those who are involved into the childcare process and their duties, and examined the existing classification of childcare costs incurred by each party. I put special focus on family costs as the most important party in the childcare process.
Results Focusing on childcare and upbringing costs, I examined possible approaches to estimate childcare costs and selected a functional classification of expenses, which allows reviewing childcare and upbringing costs in a very detailed manner and point out childcare and upbringing costs as a separate item.
Conclusions and Relevance Based on the proposed classification, I analyzed childcare costs of parties to the process, provided the amounts and indicated key sources of data. The last conclusion concerns the need to qualify child care and their upbringing as labor. It will help to make this type of activity more prestigious and contributes to increasing the standard of living for families with children.


The number of working age population in Russia and possible responses to its decline

Sinitsa A.L. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russian Federation ( sinitsa@econ.msu.ru )

Journal: National interests: priorities and security, #11, 2017

Importance A decline in young and working age population and increase in elderly population affect the economic growth and put the economic revival of the nation at peril.
Objectives I examine the number of principal socio-demographic groups of the Russian population within the 1990–2016 time span. I determine how the numbers may possibly change after 2017 and what measures can be undertaken to mitigate an adverse effect on the economy.
Methods Relying upon the Rosstat data, I trace trends in numbers of principal socio?demographic groups of the Russian population up to 2017. To project it for the 2017–2050 period, I adhere to the Russian population dynamics forecast prepared in the Lomonosov Moscow State University.
Results Young population and working age population will decline significantly, with the elderly population showing the opposite trend. The article demonstrates the breakdown of the population group as assessed by the probable forecast for January 1, 2051.
Conclusions and Relevance The modernization process pursues a better demographic situation, infrastructure development and adoption of new measures to harmonize family and professional roles of parents, increase the share of working elderly people, promote the digital economy. All these aspects are important, with the first two of them being the most critical ones, since they are intended to increase the birth rate.


The number of households consisting of a mother with children in Russia according to the 2002 and 2010 censuses

Sinitsa A.L. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russian Federation ( sinitsa@econ.msu.ru )

Journal: Regional Economics: Theory and Pactice, #5, 2017

Importance The article discusses the problems of households with a mother as the only parent. Such households experience considerable difficulties in the care of children and their upbringing, due to limited available resources. To improve the quality of life of such households, more careful examination of all relevant issues is absolutely necessary.
Objectives The article aims to study the changes in the number of households consisting of a mother with children, number of members and their average size, and the proportion of these households among all households consisting of more than two members, and all households with children under 18 years in Russia in 2002–2010.
Methods For the study, I used the methods of logical analysis and demographic statistics.
Results For the intercensal period, in Russia, the number of households consisting of a mother with children, and their proportion among all households with children have decreased significantly, but in regions with high fertility and low living standards, their number has increased. The reasons for such changes vary by region and socio-economic and demographic characteristics of the country's development in 1980–1990.
Conclusions The article concludes that to form the public policies to reduce the number of households consisting of a mother with children under 18 years of age, the main areas should be as follows: the establishment of a system for divorce prevention, raising the standard of living through economic and noneconomic methods, legitimize the term of single mother, the infrastructure development, and further research.


History of factoring: from agency transactions to commercial finance industry

Kanayev A.V. Doctor of Economics, Professor, the Department of Credit Theory and Financial Management, the St-Petersburg State University ( tcfm@econ.pul.ru )

Sinitsa E.A. Applicant of the Department of Credit Theory and Financial Management, the St-Petersburg State University ( tcfm@econ.pul.ru )

Journal: Finance and credit, #37, 2013

The article is devoted to the poorly studied processes of origin, formation and development of the factoring and factoring relationship. For the first time in our literature the authors investigate the historical original forms of instruments and institutions that form the conceptual framework of modern factoring as complex commercial and financial services provided by factor or bank to their clients. As the key moment the analysis of an origin of the turned contract law of the requirement from transactions of the commercial credit and the elementary agency relations connected with its sale and collection serves. Factoring evolution is traced up to formation of the modern industry of commercial financing.


History of factoring: transactions from agent to commercial finance industry

Kanayev A.V. Doctor of Economics, Professor, the Department of Credit Theory and Financial Management, the St-Petersburg State University ( tcfm@econ.pul.ru )

Sinitsa E.A. Graduate Student, the Department of Credit Theory and Financial Management, the St-Petersburg State University ( tcfm@econ.pul.ru )

Journal: Finance and credit, #35, 2013

The article is devoted to the poorly studied processes of origin, formation and development of the factoring and factoring relationship. For the first time in our literature the authors investigate the historical original forms of instruments and institutions that form the conceptual framework of modern factoring as complex commercial and financial services provided by factor or bank to their clients. As the key moment the analysis of an origin of the turned contract law of the requirement from transactions of the commercial credit and the elementary agency relations connected with its sale and collection serves. Factoring evolution is traced up to formation of the modern industry of commercial financing.


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