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Cities and towns of Russia: Classification and typology

Manaeva I.V. Belgorod State University, Belgorod, Russian Federation ( in.manaeva@yandex.ru )

Journal: Regional Economics: Theory and Practice, #7, 2018

Importance Russian cities and towns are differentiated not only by population size, but also by a number of other indicators. This fact necessitates the development of a city typology system.
Objectives The aim of the study is to develop a set of criteria for typology of Russian cities.
Methods The study draws on methods of grouping, classification, systems and complex analysis, expert assessment.
Results The paper distinguishes criteria of Russian cities classification, namely population size, relation to the State border, distance from the city having million plus population or the principal city, population density, type of economy, city function. Russia does not have cities with population ranging from 2,000 to 5,000 thousand people. High and above-average density of population is observed in the Moscow oblast, in Moscow it is above-average.
Conclusions Highly concentrated urban agglomeration is around Moscow. A special type of towns – monotowns – are numerous in Russia. The study may serve as a theoretical basis for developing recommendations on reducing inter- and intraregional differentiation in Russia.


Methodological tools for assessing the competitiveness of mono-cities

Manaeva I.V. Belgorod National Research University, Belgorod, Russian Federation ( in.manaeva@yandex.ru )

Rastvortseva S.N. Belgorod National Research University, Belgorod, Russian Federation ( srastvortseva@gmail.com )

Journal: Regional Economics: Theory and Practice, #5, 2016

Subject The article considers the problems of single-industry towns in the Russian Federation, where the economic activities of different levels of competitiveness are concentrated, like metallurgy, machine-building, light and food industry, the textile industry. This results in a high level of differentiation of the towns' socio-economic development.
Objectives The paper aims to develop and test methodological tools for assessing the competitiveness of single-industry towns.
Methods Our technique of estimation of the competitiveness of single-industry towns is based on the determination of blocks of development indicators of economy, finance, labor resources, social sphere, demography, the industry. The calculation technique apparatus involves standardization of statistical indicators based on the variation scope, calculation of private and integral competitiveness indexes of towns.
Results We determined the various levels of competitiveness of various single-industry towns, and we note certain causes of the level difference.
Relevance The results obtained can be applied in scientific research to assess the competitiveness of single-industry towns, by municipal authorities to develop programs of socio-economic development of towns, and can also be used in developing a regional model for forecasting of the socio-economic development of towns.


Specifics of socio-economic inequality in Russian cities

Manaeva I.V. Belgorod National Research University, Belgorod, Russian Federation ( in.manaeva@yandex.ru )

Journal: Economic Analysis: Theory and Practice, #5, 2017

Importance Placement of productive forces in the space at the present stage is a subject of active research. It is determined by the growing differentiation of socio-economic status of cities.
Objectives The study aims to explore the dynamics of inequality of Russian cities within federal districts and the entire country, to confirm or refute the hypothesis about dependence of average monthly salary in cities on the level of urbanization in the region.
Methods In the study, I employ the Zipf law, Gini coefficient, and comparative analysis. To test the hypothesis, I use the least square method.
Results The Ural Federal District is a leader in terms of the rate of urban population growth (2003–2014), intensive depopulation is observed in the Far Eastern Federal District. The growth of urban inequality in terms of population in 2004–2014 is revealed in the Northwestern, Ural and Siberian Federal district. The Central Federal District demonstrates the growth of urban inequality in terms of the volume of own production of goods and services, investment in fixed capital, and density of population.
Conclusions In Russia, capital and major cities attract the population of regions. High values of certain indicators and the growth of urban inequality are observed in the Central Federal District. The findings may be useful for creating the methodological tools to design mechanisms of smoothing the interregional disparities, programs for socio-economic development of cities.


The Zipf's law: A cross-country analysis

Manaeva I.V. Belgorod National Research University, Belgorod, Russian Federation ( in.manaeva@yandex.ru )

Kanishcheva A.V. Belgorod National Research University, Belgorod, Russian Federation ( black_shadow13@mail.ru )

Journal: Economic Analysis: Theory and Practice, #7, 2018

Importance The article addresses the modern settlement system in cities of the world, being a topical problem of spatial economy. It presents empirical studies of the Zipf's law in foreign and domestic literature. To assess the conformity of the modern settlement system with the rank-size distribution, we chose the following countries: Belarus, Brazil, Great Britain, Egypt, Norway, Poland, Russia, Turkey, USA, France, Japan.
Objectives The aim is to analyze the feasibility of the Zipf's law at the cross-country level.
Methods We apply the least square method to analyze the feasibility of the Zipf's law for the sample of countries.
Results The closest to the ideal Zipf's curve are settlement systems in cities of developing countries (Turkey, Poland, Brazil) and developed countries (USA, Japan). The gap between the main 'primate city' and subsequent rank cities is very significant.
Conclusions Traditionally, the sample of 'primate city' countries is a capital. Large centers will continue to grow at a faster pace and attract more and more migrants. This trend is negative, as overpopulation of large cities will be accompanied by a change in the ethnic and social composition of residents, as well as by suburbanization, which can lead to social and economic stagnation.


Urbanization and Economic Development in Russian Regions

Manaeva I.V. Belgorod National Research University, Belgorod, Russian Federation ( in.manaeva@yandex.ru )

Journal: Economic Analysis: Theory and Practice, #9, 2017

Subject The article addresses the urbanization and its role in economic and social processes.
Objectives The study aims to examine the processes of urbanization and economic development in the Federal districts of Russia.
Methods The study employs a comparative analysis and graphical method. To assess the relationship between urbanization (medium-sized towns) and economic development in the Federal districts, I apply the least squares approach.
Results There was a more than 50% increase in urbanization level from 1917 to 2017. In the Central Federal District, the urban growth was the highest in the Moscow oblast, with noticeable linear relationship between the level of urbanization and economic development. In the Northwestern Federal District there is also a serious difference between the Nenets Autonomous Okrug and the rest regions. The analysis shows a linear relationship between medium-sized towns and economic development in the Southern, Volga, Ural and Siberian Federal Districts. The findings can be used by regional and municipal authorities to give scientific credence to programs and strategies for social and economic development of Russia's cities.
Conclusions The analysis of urbanization trends within the Federal districts of Russia enabled to highlight the following levels: high (the Central, Northwestern, and Ural Federal District), average (the Volga, Siberian, Far Eastern Federal District), low (the Southern Federal District), and very low (the North Caucasian Federal District). The relationship between urbanization and inequality in capital investment was observed in 2002 in all Federal districts of Russia, except for the Southern and Ural Federal District.


An economic and mathematical model to forecast socio–economic development of single-industry cities

Manaeva I.V. Belgorod National Research University, Belgorod, Russian Federation ( in.manaeva@yandex.ru )

Rastvortseva S.N. Belgorod National Research University, Belgorod, Russian Federation ( srastvortseva@gmail.com )

Journal: Economic Analysis: Theory and Practice, #10, 2016

Subject The article deals with searching for ways to change the situation in single-industry towns, to develop their adaptability to transformation of environment.
Objectives The purpose of the study is to create an economic-mathematical model to forecast social and economic development of monotowns.
Methods The paper employs econometric methods to analyze the influence of endogenous and exogenous factors on socio-economic condition of a company town.
Results The study provides an empirical evidence that the share of those employed by the city-forming enterprise negatively affects the economic and social status of company towns. Road density and investments in the budget of company towns have a positive impact on socio-economic condition. Import quota and GDP per capita in the region have positive influence on social status of company towns. The analysis of determination coefficients in the obtained models enable to conclude that endogenous factors have a greater impact on economic and social status of company towns than exogenous ones.
Conclusions The presented system of economic and mathematical models has powerful predictive capabilities. Reducing the share of employment in the city-forming enterprise by 2.04 percent will ensure the growth of industrial production by 1 percent. Reducing the share of employment in the city-forming enterprise by 0.45 percent with an increase in the length of paved roads by 0.16 percent will boost local budget revenues per capita by 1 percent.


Analyzing the effect of the Zipf’s law in Russian cities

Rastvortseva S.N. Belgorod National Research University, Belgorod, Russian Federation ( srastvortseva@gmail.com )

Manaeva I.V. Belgorod National Research University, Belgorod, Russian Federation ( in.manaeva@yandex.ru )

Journal: Economic Analysis: Theory and Practice, #46, 2015

Subject Pursuing the socio-economic policy in regions requires understanding the processes of concentration of resources, population, enterprises in certain territories, mostly, in cities. Recent studies show increasing interest of economists in the Zipf's Law manifestation in the regional system, and cities distribution under the rank-size principle.
     Objectives The aims are to test the Zipf's Law in Russian cities, to support or reject the hypothesis that in Russia the Zipf coefficient depends on the size of the geographical territory of the federal district.
     Methods We used the least square method to analyze the Zipf's Law in Russian cities in general, and in each federal district, in particular. The sampling includes 1,123 Russian cities with population over 1,000 people in 2014.
     Results The Zipf's Law manifests in the entire territory of the Russian Federation. In federal districts, the Zipf coefficient ranges from -0.65 (the Far Eastern Federal District) to -0.9 (the Ural and North Caucasian Federal Districts). The analysis of the sampling of cities with population over 100 thousand people demonstrated -1.13 Zipf’s coefficient.
     Conclusions The test of the Zipf's Law for Russian cities shows that it is valid for small (8,600–15,300 people) and large cities (66,700–331,000 people). The Zipf's Law fails for cities with population exceeding one million people (except for the city of St. Petersburg). The study supports the hypothesis on dependence of the Zipf coefficient on the size of a federal district.


Urban economic inequality in the Russian Federation: Indicators, evaluation

Manaeva I.V. Belgorod State National Research University, Belgorod, Russian Federation ( in.manaeva@yandex.ru )

Journal: National Interests: Priorities and Security, #10, 2016

Importance Cities have been playing a greater role in economic and social processes for recent decades, thus necessitating a research into urban inequality, i.e. processes of active growth and dissolution of cities throughout the economic milieu of the country. The research is relevant since the Russian cities are very different in terms of some indicators.
Objectives The research pursues determining indicators of urban economic inequality in the Russian Federation, forming the system of evaluation methods. I verified the hypothesis stating that a percentage of subsistence rate within the average monthly pay depends on the volume of domestic production of goods and services per capita in the Russian cities.
Methods To evaluate urban inequality in the Russian Federation, I used the Zipf's Law, Gini coefficient, Theil index. The hypothesis was tested with the least-squares method.
Results As the analysis of the population trends for 2003–2013 shows, smaller towns mainly demonstrate a decline in population, within the federal district, while larger cities of the Central, Northwestern, Southern, North Caucasian and Siberian Federal Districts see a population influx. The Central Federal District demonstrates the maximum Gini coefficient in terms of internal production of goods and services, and high differentiation of salaries in the cities.
Conclusions and Relevance Large cities of the Central, Northwestern, Southern, North Caucasian and Siberian Federal Districts attract the regions' population. High inequality of internal production of goods and services in the district results from a gap between Moscow and the other cities. Low Theil index says that the index per capita is evenly dispersed within the Federal District. If internal production of goods and services increases per capita by 1%, it will decrease a percentage of subsistence rate within the average monthly pay by 0.1%.


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