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A conceptual analysis of the world and Russian rocket and space industries and markets

Makarova D.Yu. Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, Moscow, Russian Federation ( grapehome@mail.ru )

Khrustalev E.Yu. Central Economics and Mathematics Institute, RAS, Moscow, Russian Federation ( stalev@cemi.rssi.ru )

Journal: Economic Analysis: Theory and Practice, #28, 2015

Subject The subject of research is the system of economic relations that arise in the process of formation and strengthening of the missile-space industry, as well as the challenges and opportunities of use of its products and services in the global and domestic practices.
     Objectives We set an objective to explore the trends and prospects in the world's space activities, assess Russia's position in the global space market, and develop recommendations for this position strengthening.
     Methods Dialectical analysis and synthesis, conceptual and semantic modeling, statistical observation, comparison, induction and deduction are the theoretical-methodological basis of the study.
     Results We have considered theoretical aspects of the world space industry. We show its development prospects, analyze the main approaches to segmenting the world space market, and offer certain directions and measures to strengthen the position of domestic producers in it.
     Relevance The increased competition between countries and corporations creates market forces that give a boost to the processes of unification of individual companies in large international corporations. The results will be useful to the public authorities responsible for the development of the space-rocket industry, as well as private and public companies wishing to profitably participate in implementation of major innovative rocket-space projects and programs.


Energy strategy of Russia in oil and gas export: The factor of excess transport capacity

Makarova Yu.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russian Federation ( j.savunova@gmail.com )

Journal: Regional Economics: Theory and Practice, #4, 2018

Importance This article deals with the issues of infrastructure of oil and gas export from Russia, geography of raw materials supply and plans to expand the resource transportation network. The issue of transport overcapacity is considered in terms of the institutional characteristics of the industry, geographical aspects of the energy strategy, and the country's energy security considerations.
Objectives The article aims to analyze the energy strategy of Russia in the field of oil and gas export, as well as identify possible causes of surplus of production capacity.
Methods For the study, I used the methods of systems, structural and comparative analyses, and the concrete historical approach.
Results The analysis of the existing infrastructure of oil and gas export from Russia shows the availability of excess capacity. The capacity utilization ratios are different for both sectors, as well as different supply routes. The large infrastructure enhancement projects reveal the long-term nature of the problem.
Conclusions The dominant role of the State in the Russian energy sector has contributed to the active development of transport capacity. The strategic pivot towards Asia reduces the use of transport infrastructure in the western direction. The results of the analysis can be used to update the Russian energy strategy.


Quantitative assessment of the effect of institutional environment on social responsibility of business

Babanova Yu.V. South Ural State University, Chelyabinsk, Russian Federation ( uv.babanova@yandex.ru )

Makarova L.I. South Ural State University, Chelyabinsk, Russian Federation ( bmli@yandex.ru )

Rastvorova E.P. Chelyabinsk State Pedagogical University, Chelyabinsk, Russian Federation ( evgenia.makarova05@gmail.com )

Journal: Economic Analysis: Theory and Practice, #1, 2016

Importance The requirement of sustainable development directly relates to social responsibility of business. Therefore, the factor of institutional environment of business in general and assessment of the impact of institutional environment on corporate social responsibility in particular are particularly important.
Objectives The study aims to quantify the influence of institutional environment on the social responsibility of business.
Methods Using the econometric approach, we analyzed the impact of institutional environment on corporate social responsibility, and defined indicators to assess it at the macro-level.
Results We propose using indicators that evaluate the impact of institutional environment on the social responsibility of business. They include the level of property rights protection, corruption perception index, and the level of law abidance. The developed regression model enabled to quantify the impact of institutional environment on the social responsibility of business on the case of economic and political institutions.
Conclusions and Relevance We conclude that protection and specification of property rights, the level of corruption and law-abiding behavior have approximately similar influence on the development of social responsibility of business in the society.


The need to consider contemporary trends in the development of the military-industrial complex

Varshavskii A.E. Central Economics and Mathematics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russian Federation ( varshav@cemi.rssi.ru )

Makarova Yu.A. Central Economics and Mathematics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russian Federation ( mak-yuliya@mail.ru )

Journal: National Interests: Priorities and Security, #12, 2016

Importance As new threats and challenges to the national security arise, it requires designing effective methods to ensure it. This should be considered when the military-industrial complex is reformed.
Objectives The research analyzes the specifics of the military-industrial complex development in the USA and the EU, and outlines recommendations for Russia to consider global trends when reforming the military-industrial complex.
Methods Having analyzed new threats and challenges to the national security of Russia, we investigated the U.S. and EU practices of reforms of the military-industrial complex in accordance with the current circumstances.
Results Contemporary threats and challenges were proved to generate demand for new military and industrial products. We found they influenced the reforming of the military-industrial complex abroad, reviewed whether foreign experience in the military-industrial restructuring was applicable to Russia.
Conclusions and Relevance When reforming the military-industrial complex, Russia should consider new types of threats to the national security. It is important to take the U.S. and EU experience into consideration concerning the reforming of the military-industrial complex. Considering the specifics and development of Russia before it shifted to the market economy, the governance structure of the military-industrial complex should be thoroughly and attentively elaborated.


Maintaining the competitiveness of the space industry in modern conditions of increasing globalization and the emergence of new business models in the global space market

Makarova D.Yu. Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, Moscow, Russian Federation ( grapehome@mail.ru )

Journal: National Interests: Priorities and Security, #11, 2016

Importance The space industry is a very special target of management. Currently, two trends can be seen in the competitive environment of the global space industry, i.e. growing private sector with the emergence of new business models and the intensifying process of internationalizing value building chains in respect of space industry products.
Objectives The research reviews what measures should be taken to keep and maintain the competitiveness of the national space industry as part of the competition race.
Methods I used dialectical analysis and synthesis, statistical observations, comparison, induction and deduction, historical and logic methods.
Results I found both considerable opportunities and new risks for different agents of the space industry in the ever changing environment. I reviewed the State's role and indicated that it was necessary to consider the organizational structure of the national space industry when the industry policies were formulated.
Conclusions and Relevance The current trends in the space industry development gradually shape its operational structure that is similar to the network economic model. The State should craft mechanisms to keep necessary control over ongoing processes in the industry. In the mean time, the State should not harness its efforts solely to take relevant measures and maintain the private business in Russia's space industry. There should be measures in place to bolster the innovation influx and improve the commercial focus of the national space industry. The article may be useful for governmental authorities and top management of Roscosmos Corporation.


Improving performance indicators of the military-industrial complex by expanding the civil production

Varshavskii A.E. Central Economics and Mathematics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russian Federation ( varshav@cemi.rssi.ru )

Makarova Yu.A. Central Economics and Mathematics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russian Federation ( mak-yuliya@mail.ru )

Journal: National Interests: Priorities and Security, #7, 2018

Importance This study analyzes changes in performance indicators of the military-industrial complex through the expansion of civil high-tech production. The reasonable combination of military and civil production will enable defense enterprises and entire sector to increase their effectiveness.
Objectives We examine practices of the countries which attained the best results in diversifying the military-industrial production. We also evaluate how the civil production and respective output influence performance indicators of the military-industrial complex.
Methods Analyzing the most advanced countries’ expertise (USA among them), we study how the expansion of civil production influences performance indicators of the military-industrial complex.
Results Increased output in civil production is showed to influence and improve performance indicators of the military-industrial complex.
Conclusions and Relevance We prove that both expertise of the most advanced countries and Russian distinctions should be taken into account in order to successfully implement the production diversification program. As the analysis of the U.S. aerospace industry shows, an increase in civil production output contributes to performance indicators, thus providing the rationale for diversification of the Russian military-industrial complex. The military and industrial enterprises shall set up market-oriented manufacturing of civil products, majoring in high-tech lines. The civil production output will not increase without an appropriate industrial and protectionist policy focused on the priority development of domestic mechanical engineering.


Updating the theoretical framework for budget revenue generation: A structural approach

Efimova L.A. National Research Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod, Nizhny Novgorod, Russian Federation ( efimovala@iee.unn.ru )

Makarova S.D. National Research Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod, Nizhny Novgorod, Russian Federation ( makarovasd@iee.unn.ru )

Ginzburg M.Yu. National Research Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod, Nizhny Novgorod, Russian Federation ( ginzburg@iee.unn.ru )

Journal: Economic Analysis: Theory and Practice, #12, 2016

Importance The article addresses oil and gas and other revenues of the Federal and consolidated budgets of the Russian Federation from 2006 to 2015. The budget revenue structure is of particular interest to both economists and financiers, and Russian politicians, as it determines the actions of the Russian Government as a regulator of economic relations.
Objectives Our aim is to scrutinize the nature of Russian budget revenues depending on the territory of formation of subjects of taxation and the Government's ability to influence them through discretionary fiscal policy tools.
Methods We employed a system-structural analysis to explore oil-and-gas and other than oil-and-gas revenues of the Federal and consolidated budgets from the perspective of exogenous and endogenous variables. This approach enabled to determine the relationship between external economic factors and the ability of the Government to develop its own 'internal' tax base.
Results We classified budget revenues based on the uniformity of attributes, i.e. the territory of formation of subjects of taxation, applicability of discretionary fiscal instruments to regulate and assess the impact of external factors on the tax base and subject of taxation formation. Thus, using the new terminology, the budget revenue structure of the Russian Federation is presented as follows: exogenous, quasi-exogenous, endogenous, and quasi-endogenous budget revenues.
Conclusions and Relevance The offered classification enables updating the theoretical framework for budget revenue categories and, therefore, the quantification of the impact of external factors, as well as the specifics of governmental regulation under transitional economy.


Development of private business in the rocket-and-space industry: trends and prospects

Makarova D.Yu. People's Friendship University of Russia, Moscow, Russian Federation ( grapehome@mail.ru )

Journal: Economic Analysis: Theory and Practice, #25, 2015

Subject Development of private business in the rocket-and-space industry is a fairly new trend. If in the early 2000's entrepreneurs announced their ambitious plans in the field of space, during recent several years it is possible to observe the implementation of the conceived programs, as well as the growing number of private companies in the sector.
     Objectives
The study aims at analyzing trends, development prospects, and the role of private business within the system of economic relations that arise in the course of formation and strengthening of the space industry at the national and global levels.
     Methods
The theoretical and methodological framework for the paper is a general scientific methodology involving the application of such approaches as dialectical analysis and synthesis, statistical surveys, comparison, induction and deduction. The information sources include scientific publications and interviews with Russian and foreign experts in the space industry, the world famous mass media in the field of astronautics, effective laws and regulations, and official reports of recognized research organizations in the space activities area.
     Results The article presents a brief review of existing private projects in the field of space and identifies the most attractive segments of the space sector for private business. I have analyzed the importance of private initiatives for the development of national space activities, and described the conditions and factors that contribute to the formation of entrepreneurship in the rocket and space area, in particular, the main tools of the US government policy in this area. I pay particular attention to the formation of the private sector in the Russian rocket-and-space industry.
     Conclusions The study reveals the availability of private initiative in all segments of space activities, even in high-tech ones. The USA is a leader in terms of a number of private companies operating in the space area. Private business is a source of optimal solutions, innovation and an effective form of participation in commercial space activities. It is crucial to create favorable conditions in the Russian space area for private business development, as in many ways, it will help eliminate the causes of systemic crisis in the Russian rocket-and-space industry.


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