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Cost barriers of diffusion of technologies of alternative power engineering in Russia

Ratner S.V. Doctor of Economics Sciences, Leading Researcher of the Laboratory of Economic Dynamics and Management of Innovations, the Institute of Problems of Management named after V.A. Trapeznikov of the Russian Academy of Sciences ( lanarat@mail.ru )

Iosifov V.V. PhD of Technical Sciences, Head of the Department of Mechanical Engineering and Motor Transport, the Kuban State Technological University ( iosifov@kubstu.ru )

Journal: Economic Analysis: Theory and Practice, #40, 2013

In many countries diffusion of technologies of renewable power restrains a number of barriers of technical, economic, institutional, legal and cultural character. In the article cost barriers of diffusion of the most mature technologies of alternative power engineering in Russia, namely conditions of their price competition in the electric power market with traditional technologies are investigated.


Study on the regularities of the development of new high-tech industries in the energy sector

Ratner S.V. Trapeznikov Institute of Control Sciences of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russian Federation ( lanarat@mail.ru )

Iosifov V.V. Kuban State Technological University, Krasnodar, Russian Federation ( iosifov@kubstu.ru )

Journal: Economic Analysis: Theory and Practice, #28, 2014

The paper analyzes the evolution of industrial activity of the Spanish company Gamesa, which is the world leader in wind turbine manufacturing and maintenance of wind farms. The paper discusses the main regularities of the development of the industry in the period of intensive growth and during the period of stagnation. It also considers the embedding in the emerging global technological chains of Russian manufacturers. The results obtained can be used by private economic agents (machine-building enterprises) in making investment decisions, as well as by public authorities to develop strategies for the development of renewable energy and energy engineering.


International protectionism policy in developing new energy technologies

Ratner S.V. Trapeznikov Institute of Control Sciences of RAS, Moscow, Russian Federation ( lanarat@mail.ru )

Iosifov V.V. Kuban State Technological University, Krasnodar, Russian Federation ( iosifov@kubstu.ru )

Journal: National interests: priorities and security, #46, 2015

Importance The world practice of technology diffusion indicates that high-tech sectors can dynamically evolve not only due to implementing national scientific developments, but also due to calling in companies that are the leaders of high-tech production for opening joint ventures and subsidiaries. The level of high-tech production localization is a critical point.
     Objectives This research examines protectionist practices various WTO member countries use to accelerate energy technologies diffusion (wind energy case). The legislative aspects of introducing a production localization index are analyzed, as well as positive and negative effects of this practice.
     Methods This research draws upon a bibliographical analysis, statistical analysis, comparative analysis, and case studies.
     Results Localization threshold introduction has both positive and negative effects the article describes.
     Conclusions and Relevance The major wind potential of Russia and the high-volume domestic market as well as a high level of development of related industries such as metallurgy, rare earth production, energy mechanical engineering, allow assuming that introducing a threshold localization index will be an economically justifiable stimulus for the development of the national wind energy engineering.


Evaluation of the level of development of process environmental innovation

Ratner S.V. Trapeznikov Institute of Control Sciences of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russian Federation ( lanaratner@ipu.ru )

Iosifov V.V. Kuban State Technological University, Krasnodar, Russian Federation ( iosifov@kubstu.ru )

Journal: Financial Analytics: Science and Experience, #34, 2016

Subject The article discusses the issues of assessing the level of development of the various types of environmental innovation: product, process, organizational, and the marketing ones.
Objectives The paper aims to develop a method of indirect measuring the level of development of process environmental innovation.
Methods To develop the indirect measurement method, we used a DEA methodology. The method reduces to the solution of the problem of nonparametric optimization of multiple indicators of industrial and environmental activities of homogeneous economic agents.
Results The developed method of indirect measurement of the level of development of process ecological innovations has been validated at many electricity companies, within the framework of OAO OGK-2. The resulting estimates of the level of development of process environmental innovation of the companies surveyed go well with the results of analysis of the technological structure of production of these companies obtained by other researchers.
Conclusions The proposed method of measuring the level of development of process environmental innovation is an important contribution to the theory and methodology of the study of barriers to environmental innovation. The advantage of the method proposed: the measurement results are presented in a ratio scale, which allows both to rank companies according to the criterion of development of process ecological innovations, and to assess the definite margin of superiority of one company over another, in this aspect. The disadvantage of the approach proposed is the dependence of measurement results on the number of measured objects.


A scenario analysis of the co-directional development of innovative technology in automobile transport and power generation

Iosifov V.V. Kuban State Technological University, Krasnodar, Russian Federation ( iosifov_v@mail.ru )

Journal: Economic Analysis: Theory and Practice, #11, 2016

Subject The article considers methodological approaches to forecasting the economic and ecological effects of diffusion of innovative automobile transport technologies, i.e. electric cars and hydrogen-powered cars.
Methods I employ a scenario analysis. The forecast of changes in technical and economic parameters of primary and supporting technologies rests on learning curve models, the forecast of demand for new technologies – on time series, and the diffusion level of new technologies is determined by a variety of external factors, including the State policy. I propose several scenarios that further serve as a framework to forecast the economic and ecological effects of the technology replacement process subject to the impact of exogenous factors.
Results A simplified version of the scenario-based analysis has been tested in the Pskov oblast (a region with the highest indicators of air pollution by automobile transport per unit of GRP and per capita). I obtained quantitative estimation of pure ecological effect for the case of full diffusion of the electric car technology in the private transport sector.
Conclusions The quantitative estimations of decreasing pollution after complete replacement of private cars by electric ones prove the invalidity of concerns that positive ecological effect of new automobile technologies introduction is completely smoothed over by increased negative ecological effects at other stages of the life cycle. The increase in demand for electricity caused by the transition to new automobile technologies has been insignificant in the pilot region, and could be compensated for by increasing the use factor of existing power-generating capacities.


Strategizing for solar energy development in Russia subject to environmental impact

Ratner S.V. V.A. Trapeznikov Institute of Control Sciences, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russian Federation ( lanaratner@ipu.ru )

Iosifov V.V. Kuban State Technological University, Krasnodar, Russian Federation ( iosifov_v@mail.ru )

Journal: Economic Analysis: Theory and Practice, #8, 2017

Subject The article considers the issues of production base development for solar energy in Russia and process chain creation, which can meet the growing demand of the domestic market and, in the long run, approach international photovoltaics markets.
Objectives The purpose of the study is to assess negative impact of various photovoltaic (PV) technologies on environment to select and support the most ecologically friendly production, standardize and identify the best available technologies.
Methods We assess the negative impact of rival PV technologies on environment, using the Life Cycle Analysis technique. Based on the CML 2001 methodology, we select the categories and quantifiable indicators of the impact. Comparative evaluation of integrated eco-efficiency of rival PV technologies was carried out using the Data Envelopment Analysis.
Results We found that cadmium telluride and copper indium selenide photovoltaic panels on film solar cells are the most ecologically efficient throughout the life cycle. Economic indicators that determine the preference of one or another technology at the same level of environmental friendliness can be derived from standard procedures for techno-economic analysis. For the rest of the PV technologies, we calculated target values of fifteen indicators of negative environmental impact, which, if achieved, provide for their eco-efficiency.
Conclusions The findings can be applied to design and amend State programs for solar energy development in Russia.


Future development of the Russian markets of energy efficiency technologies for mass consumption

Iosifov V.V. Kuban State Technological University, Krasnodar, Krasnodar Krai, Russian Federation ( iosifov_v@mail.ru )

Journal: Digest Finance, #1, 2017

Importance Illustrating three regions of the Russian Federation and the heat pump technology, the research discusses issues of regional markets of energy efficiency goods and services. Currently, heat pumps for heating and cooling of premises are regarded as one of the most cost effective, technologically effective and environmentally friendly methods to increase energy efficiency of the housing and utilities sector.
Methods The research was carried out by surveying more than 650 respondents from different regions of Russia and processing the collected data through methods of descriptive, parametric and nonparametric statistics.
Results Regional programs provide for energy saving activities and educating the public on energy saving issues, but the activities appear to demonstrate low efficiency. Many people in the regions are willing to use more efficient energy saving technologies so to cut their utilities spending. However, the absence of reliable information makes them believe such technologies are expensive for their personal use. Regional authorities make no contribution to creating favorable conditions for national producers of energy saving equipment to enter the market. Regional energy saving programs are not coordinated with regional and federal programs for development of the manufacturing sector, small and medium-sized businesses.
Conclusions and Relevance To improve regional energy saving programs inter alia, I suggest coordinating them with the industrial policy and activities for supporting small and medium-sized businesses. It is also reasonable to alter the substantive part of publicity campaigns promoting more economical methods of energy consumption and open the door for national energy efficient technologies, goods and services to the local market.


Forecasting the environmental effects of diffusion of electric vehicle technologies based on the learning curve methodology

Ratner S.V. V.A. Trapeznikov Institute of Control Sciences, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russian Federation ( lanaratner@ipu.ru )

Iosifov V.V. Kuban State Technological University, Krasnodar, Russian Federation ( iosifov_v@mail.ru )

Journal: Economic Analysis: Theory and Practice, #4, 2017

Importance Electric vehicles as an alternative to traditional transport facilities with internal combustion engines are deemed to optimize the structure and technological support to transportation systems. However, there is no clear understanding in the scientific community yet as to whether they are better from the environmental effect perspective.
Objectives The aim of this work is to develop a method of forecasting the environmental effects of diffusion of electric car technologies and test it on the Krasnodar Krai case, taking into account the technical progress in energy efficiency of replaced (traditional transport facilities) and replacing (electric cars) technology.
Methods We employ the learning theory as a methodological framework, which is widely used to solve the problems of forecasting the technological development.
Results The calculations show that by 2025 the total volume of private vehicle emission will go down by 9.5% as compared to 2015, if the energy efficiency of vehicles with internal combustion engine and the penetration of electric cars increase. This is true even despite a significant increase in the level of motorization (almost by 65%). Thus, an increasing reach of electric vehicle technologies is preferable from an environmental standpoint.
Conclusions and Relevance The proposed approach enables to estimate the reduction in emissions from road transport in any region subject to continuing trends in the growth of energy efficiency and environmental friendliness of traditional cars, increase in the vehicle-to-population ratio in Russia, and reduction in electric car cost. The model ignores additional effects of encouraging and discouraging policies.


Regulating the negative environmental effect of motor vehicles with fuel standards: Evidence from the Krasnodar Krai

Iosifov V.V. Kuban State Technological University, Krasnodar, Krasnodar Krai, Russian Federation ( iosifov@kubstu.ru )

Dibrova S.S. Kuban State University, Krasnodar, Krasnodar Krai, Russian Federation ( svetlanka_dib@mail.ru )

Podvorok I.I. Kuban State University, Krasnodar, Krasnodar Krai, Russian Federation ( podvorok74@gmail.com )

Journal: National interests: priorities and security, #39, 2015

Importance Currently, air pollution aggravates due to a continuing increase in the number of motor vehicles, high density of road networks, big volumes of freight transportation and high intensity of car traffic. It is especially true for regions where economies with diversified structure actively develop, for example, the Krasnodar Krai. Air pollution poses a significant threat to population health and reduces the quality of life. The Krasnodar Krai sees a growing trend in cancer, leukemia, and endocrine disorders.
     Objectives The research constitutes a comparative analysis of how the fuel standards evolved in Russia and worldwide, as well as their effect on air quality.
     Methods We analyze the evolution of the European, Chinese and Russian fuel standards, identify implementation difficulties and factors of inefficiency of standards in terms of the adverse effect of vehicle emissions on the environment. We apply a bibliographic, statistical and comparative analysis as the main research methods.
     Results We found that emissions per car grow in respect to all the main indicators of pollutants. We put special focus on the air quality of the Krasnodar Krai as a region of intensive tourism development, including automobile tourism.
     Conclusions As the analysis shows, incompliance with the fuel quality standards became the main reason for growth in motor vehicle emissions and pollution. We investigated practices of other regions to ensure the appropriate quality of fuel, and we propose a set of initial measures to formulate a comprehensive regional system for protecting the air quality.


The issues of the methodical support of power saving processes

Iosifov V.V. Kuban State University, Krasnodar, Russian Federation ( iosifov@kubstu.ru )

Yakovina M.F. Kuban State University, Krasnodar, Russian Federation ( maria_yakovina@mail.ru )

Ratner P.D. Plekhanov Russian University of Economics, Krasnodar Branch, Krasnodar, Russian Federation ( ratner.p.d@gmail.com )

Journal: National interests: priorities and security, #34, 2014

The article points out that in the past two decades, questions of energy audit of enterprises and organizations have acquired particular relevance in Russia. The Russian authorities have approved a number of legislative instruments relating to the power saving among them as follows: the Federal Law "On energy saving" in 1996, Federal Target Program "Energy saving in Russia" in 1998, the series of standards to regulate the issues of energy conservation in 1999, the energy strategy for Russia for the period up to 2020 in 2000, Federal Program "The energy efficient economy for the period up to 2002-2005 and for further extension up to the year 2010" in 2001. As a result, the authorities have developed a significant amount of techniques, varying both in appearance and profile of the investigated object, and level of detailed elaboration of the energy survey. The paper makes an attempt to systematize and generalize techniques of energy-related surveys, proposes their classification, provides the comparative analysis of strong and weak sides, and it also proves the need for a special class of techniques for conducting energy surveys of enterprises and organizations of the service industry. The proposed classification covers all types of energy audits and related engineering, analytical and design works and it serves to the purposes of the systematization and integration of the existing scientific and methodological developments in this area. In addition, its open structure allows making changes and additions to the extent that of improving energy management in enterprises and organizations without significant changes to the basic structure and principles adopted by the hierarchical order. The authors emphasize that the implementation of the proposed classification in the practice of the development of scientific and methodical support of the process of implementing of energy efficiency programs will allow to form the more transparent information environment, reduce the duplication of research and practical using of low quality techniques, or of those that are not consistent with the objectives of the specific energy audits.


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