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BRICS trade potential: Challenges and prospects

Arapova E.Ya. Moscow State Institute of International Relations (University) of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russian Federation ( arapova_katrin@mail.ru )

Chkoniya A.-M.E. Moscow State Institute of International Relations (University) of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russian Federation ( chk.annamaria@gmail.com )

Journal: National Interests: Priorities and Security, #7, 2016

Importance The article discusses the issues of trading capacity of the BRICS countries, identification of potential opportunities for increased turnover in line with their competitive advantages and determination of key problems impeding greater trade.
Objectives The paper aims to assess the BRICS trade-related capacity, identify the factors that promote and hinder the development of bilateral and trans-regional trade.
Methods For the study, we used a systems approach applying the methods of logical and comparative analyses, and qualitative and quantitative analyses of statistical data.
Results We determined the key factors that promote and hinder the expansion of mutual trade of the BRICS Member countries; assessed the current state and sectoral structure of bilateral trade ties, as well as prospects for expanding trade interaction. On the basis of calculations and analysis of a wide range of indices and coefficients characterizing the state of mutual trade, we describe the prospects for expanding the trans-regional trade.
Conclusions We conclude that the BRICS Member countries are eager to expand commercial ties with those BRICS-format partners, which have not yet developed their sufficient capacity for cooperation. This, in the long term, may lead to an easing of asymmetric trade links.


The 'Asian vector' of Russia's economic strategy

Arapova E.Ya. Moscow State Institute of International Relations (University) of Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russian Federation, Moscow, Russian Federation ( arapova_katrin@mail.ru )

Journal: National Interests: Priorities and Security, #36, 2015

Importance Whereas political and economic tensions with the Western countries escalate and the Russian economy has to overcome structural disproportions, the State mentions the need to diversify foreign economic partners, rather than the production and export structure only. In this respect, it is reasonable to carry out a deeper analysis of Russia's economic cooperation with the Pacific RIM countries in trade and investment.
     Objectives The research mainly aims at identifying the most promising opportunities of expanding Russia's cooperation with the Asian countries, evaluating consumer and investment demand in terms of strategic interests of the country.
     Methods
The research employs official papers and databases of governmental organizations of Russia and the Asian partners, discussions on prospects for developing economic partnership with the Asian regions. I applied a systems approach, logic and comparative analysis, qualitative and quantitative analysis of statistical data, and expert assessments.
     Results I determined key trends in the current economic development and economic policies of the Asian partners, found priorities of their demand for import substitution intended for further export, trade and investment.
     Conclusions and Relevance I substantiate the need to expand trading and investment cooperation of Russia with the Asian countries and demonstrate that the Russian businesses may supply goods of higher value added to the Asian markets, rather than raw materials and unsophisticated goods. I conclude that India and Indonesia may become priority trade partners for Russia, with Japan, China, Korea, and Singapore bringing investment opportunities.


Russia and India: A potential for trade cooperation

Arapova E.Ya. Moscow State Institute of International Relations (University) of Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russian Federation, Moscow, Russian Federation ( arapova_katrin@mail.ru )

Mudzhumdar A.A. Moscow State Institute of International Relations (University) of Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russian Federation, Moscow, Russian Federation ( mujumdar.anita@gmail.com )

Journal: National Interests: Priorities and Security, #10, 2016

Importance The article analyzes problems and opportunities of trade cooperation between Russia and India in terms of Russia's strategic interests.
Objectives The research evaluates the trade potential for bilateral cooperation between Russia and India, identifies factors that boost and impede the development of bilateral trade. We also analyze the current trade policies, concerning import from Russia in particular.
Methods The research is based on a systems approach and methods of logic and comparative analysis, expert assessment, quantitative and qualitative analysis of statistical data.
Results We found key factors boosting and impeding a growth in trade between Russia and India, considering Russia's strategic interests. The article evaluates the current state and industrial structure of bilateral trade ties, and prospects for expanding the trade cooperation.
Conclusions and Relevance In addition to general difficulties impeding the expansion of trade cooperation between the two countries, i.e. relatively high trade protectionism in India, drop in import demand, significant time and costs spent on foreign trade deals, we identified important and positive trends in bilateral trade. There we can mention a positive balance of trade for Russia, rather benevolent industrial structure of mutual trade, and growing demand for imported foods, which are positioned as strategically important for Russia, with Russia demonstrating certain competitive advantages for their production.


Fundamentals of foreign trade policy of Russia: Evaluating the possible effect of tariff regulation on import trends

Arapova E.Ya. Moscow State Institute of International Relations of Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russian Federation, Moscow, Russian Federation ( arapova_katrin@mail.ru )

Khmarenko E.S. International Trade & Integration (ITI) Research Center, Moscow, Russian Federation ( ekaterina.khmarenko@yandex.ru )

Journal: National Interests: Priorities and Security, #4, 2017

Importance The article analyzes foreign trade policy of Russia in terms of its quality and volumes, its legislative framework, and the extent to which tariff and non-tariff measures are used to regulate foreign trade.
Objectives The research evaluates how tariff regulation influences import trends in Russia, outlines a set of conclusions and recommendations in relation to transformation of foreign trade policy of the nation.
Methods The research relies upon a systems approach involving methods of logic and comparative analysis, qualitative and quantitative analysis of statistical data. The regression analysis underlies our conclusions on the effect of tariff regulation on import.
Results The research helped us to identify key trends in Russia’s foreign trade policy, evaluate the extent to which tariff and non-tariff regulation of foreign trade was used in Russia. As the most significant aspect of the research, we quantified the effect of tariff regulation on trends in import of various commodities, assessed import elasticity coefficients at the average rates of customs duties.
Conclusions and Relevance Russia is keeping on the foreign trade liberalization track, while actively using customs duties and tariffs to regulate import as compared with non-tariff restrictions. Consumer goods demonstrate the highest import elasticity coefficients in terms of the average rate of customs duties. We made our conclusions on the reasonableness of the effective foreign trade policy and provided our recommendations for improving the customs and tariff regulation.


The system of bilateral currency swap agreements: in search of promising partners of Russia in East Asia

Arapova E.Ya. Moscow State Institute of International Relations (University) of Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russian Federation, Moscow, Russian Federation ( arapova_katrin@mail.ru )

Journal: Financial Analytics: Science and Experience, #10, 2015

Importance In the context of global financial crisis and the need for reducing dependence on international reserve currencies, mainly, on the US dollar, the necessity of cutting down of dollar settlements with Russian trade partners, mainly from the East Asian countries, and execution of trade contracts in national currencies become highly relevant. In this regard, the issue of the possibilities and perspectives of creating the network of bilateral currency swap agreements with the key Asian partners of Russia assumes special importance.
     Objectives The key objective of the analysis is to reveal the potential economic effects of bilateral currency swap agreements and to determine the most promising partners for Russia among the East-Asian countries.
     Methods The study aims to determine the most promising Russian partners on the basis of a quality scoring system with a 10-point scale. The choice of the potential partner countries is based on the wide range of indexes: from trade and investment ties with Russia to macroeconomic indicators, reflecting the countries' economic systems sustainability. Besides, the research applies the econometric analysis technique. In particular, it helps to calculate the ratios of currencies' fluctuations options in order to identify the most stable among them.
     Results In the article, I consider the Russian key trade and investment partners among the East Asian countries, and also identify the countries, which are characterized by relatively more stable condition of national financial systems and by high liquidity parameters. Based on the complex data analysis, I identify the wide range of countries, which represent the greatest strategic interest for entering into bilateral currency swap agreements and settling external commerce payments in national currencies. Besides, the paper evaluates the potential interest on behalf of the Asian States in widening partnering cooperation with the Russian Federation by means of signing of the bilateral currency swap agreements.
     Conclusions and Relevance I conclude that in order of priority Japan, Republic of Korea, Singapore, Hong Kong, and India (Malaysia and Thailand to a lesser extent is suitable for that purpose) may become the highest potential partnering countries in the system of the Russian bilateral currency swap agreements with the Asian countries.


Tax incentives for investment processes in Russia: Current practices and future development

Semenova N.N. National Research Ogarev Mordovia State University, Saransk, Republic of Mordovia, Russian Federation ( nnsemenova@mail.ru )

Arapova O.A. National Research Ogarev Mordovia State University, Saransk, Republic of Mordovia, Russian Federation ( kuraj-bambey@rambler.ru )

Journal: Financial Analytics: Science and Experience, #5, 2017

Importance Activation of investment processes is a crucial goal of contemporary economic policy of Russia. The investment processes is a cornerstone to set upon new industrial development. Tax incentives mechanisms should be the main driver for such investment activity.
Objectives The research evaluates the existing mechanism to boost investment processes in Russia and outline proposals for its improvement.
Methods The research relies upon principles of systems and comprehensive approaches. We applied techniques of scientific abstraction, induction and deduction, synthesis, comparative and matching analysis. The regression analysis helped to identify the main factors, which determined the level and trends in the investment process development.
Results The article systematizes key tax instruments to push the investing activity and evaluates the existing tax benefits in relation to corporate income, corporate property and value added in terms of stimulation of investment processes nationwide. We calculate the regression model reflecting how the volume of investment in fixed assets depends on the amount of investment tax credit.
Conclusions and Relevance To improve the tax incentives for investing activity in Russia, it is necessary to reform the depreciation procedure, make investment lease activities eligible for corporate income tax breaks, VAT breaks, lower VAT or transform it into sales tax, use investment tax credit more actively. The findings can be used by governmental authorities to outline key areas of tax policies in the future.


Tax incentives for investment processes in Russia: Current practices and future development

Semenova N.N. National Research Ogarev Mordovia State University, Saransk, Republic of Mordovia, Russian Federation ( nnsemenova@mail.ru )

Arapova O.A. National Research Ogarev Mordovia State University, Saransk, Republic of Mordovia, Russian Federation ( kuraj-bambey@rambler.ru )

Journal: International Accounting, #2, 2018

Importance Activation of investment processes is a crucial goal of contemporary economic policy of Russia. The investment processes is a cornerstone to set upon new industrial development. Tax incentives mechanisms should be the main driver for such investment activity.
Objectives The research evaluates the existing mechanism to boost investment processes in Russia and outline proposals for its improvement.
Methods The research relies upon principles of systems and comprehensive approaches. We applied techniques of scientific abstraction, induction and deduction, synthesis, comparative and matching analysis. The regression analysis helped to identify the main factors, which determined the level and trends in the investment process development.
Results The article systematizes key tax instruments to push the investing activity and evaluates the existing tax benefits in relation to corporate income, corporate property and value added in terms of stimulation of investment processes nationwide. We calculate the regression model reflecting how the volume of investment in fixed assets depends on the amount of investment tax credit.
Conclusions and Relevance To improve the tax incentives for investing activity in Russia, it is necessary to reform the depreciation procedure, make investment lease activities eligible for corporate income tax breaks, VAT breaks, lower VAT or transform it into sales tax, use investment tax credit more actively. The findings can be used by governmental authorities to outline key areas of tax policies in the future.


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